Fort Garry was established in 1822 by the Hudson Bay Company where the Red and Assiniboine Rivers met. It replaced the Northwest Fur Trading Companies old Fort Gibraltar and was name after the deputy Governor of the HBC, Nicholas Garry. As still occurs today, in 1826 the rivers both overflowed their banks and destroyed the Fort and t was not rebuilt until 1835. By this time it was referred to as Upper Fort Garry because Lower Fort Garry had been constructed 32 kilometres downstream in 1831.
It became the centre of action in 1870 when the HBC had agreed to turn over the vast Northwest country to the new dominion of Canada and as a protest against the process the Fort was occupied by Louis Riel and his Métis followers. As a result, Manitoba was admitted to Canada as a province and by 1874 the area around Upper Fort Garry was established as Winnipeg which quickly overgrew the fort and became the Provincial Capital.