The King of France decided to award a monopoly for the trading of furs to Pierre Dugua de Mons in 1603 in America. He decided that he would establish a colony in America to build up trade in the new world. He and his colonists, including Samuel de Champlain, arrived off the coast of present day New Brunswick and Maine and decided to establish their settlement on an Island in a river which they named St Croix Island.
The first winter was a disaster with little game to hunt, scurvy affecting most colonists and a very unsheltered conditions. In he spring they searched for another area to re-establish their colony and Champlain found the location of present day Port Royale. They disassembled their buildings and brought them across the Bay of Fundy to the east side and rebuilt them. They set up the new colony and it started to thrive. In 1607 the Sieur de Mons monopoly was suddenly revoked and most of the colonists returned to France.
The progress of the colony was sporadic with attacks by the English, politics back in France and challenges in the new world all causing difficulties. Although it slowly grew, the expulsion of the Acadians, French, brought dreams of a New France in Nova Scotia to an end.
In 1939-40 the Port Royale fort was rebuilt by the Canadian Government and today is a part of the Parks Canada system with excellent presentation and representation of those early years of settlement.