Fort Anne which is located on the Bay of Fundy on the west side of Nova Scotia was one of the earliest European settlements in Canada. Established by the French and serving as the headquarters of operations in Nova Scotia, it quickly became a focal point of conflict between the French and English. The fortifications are a typical Vauban design with a star shaped layout which allowed overlapping fire on anyone approaching the fort.
The first fort built on the site was constructed when Scottish colonists attempted to establish a colony in 1629 and built Fort Charles, named after the King. The Fort and area reverted back to French control in the 1630's due to peace agreements. The leader of the French forces which occupied the area, Charles de menou d'Aulnay, order the first French fort built which were succeeded by two ad hoc additions and finally the earthen work fort that occupies the location today which was built in 1702.
When the War of Spanish Succession flared up, the fort was captured by the British in 1710 and their occupation of the fort and area were confirmed when the treaty of Utrecht was signed. This remained the centre of British military, and civil power until 1749 when Halifax was built on the east coast of the province.
In 1755 the garrison of the Fort were ordered to organize and support the expulsion of the Acadian population in the area. During the American Revolution and the War of 1812, he fort saw little action and was renamed Fort Anne. It slowly became a run down outpost and in 1917, due to local lobbying, it was named became the first National Historic Site in Canada.