Canada History

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Year Day Month Event
      The separatist Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) sets off bombs in Montréal (Apr.-May).
  8 April Liberals under Pearson win a minority government.
  29 November A TCA flight crashes in Québec, killing 118.
-75000000     Dinosaurs live in steamy forests and warm seas that cover much of what we now call Canada
-30000     The first human inhabitants of North America probably cross from Siberia by land bridge as the last Ice Age draws to a close.
600     Five Iroquois nations form the powerful Confederacy of the Longhouse.
1000     Leif Ericsson's first voyage to Vinland. A Norse colony is established on Vinland, but lasts only a coupe of years.
1000     Native people of southern Ontario begin to plant and harvest corn. The Thule people - ancestors of the Inuit - migrate east across Artic Canada
1492     Columbus sails to America
1497 24 June John Cabot claims New World territory (either Newfoundland or Cape Breton Island) for England.
1497     John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto) of Genoa makes two voyages for England to the fishing grounds of Newfoundland.
1498     Cabot makes his second voyage across the Atlantic to the Maritimes but is lost at sea
1500     Gaspar de Corte-Real sails around Newfoundland
1508     Thomas Aubert visits Newfoundland
1520     Fagundes sails into the Gulf of St. Lawrence area
1524     Verrazzano for France and Gomes for Spain, Scout the Atlantic seaboard
1527     John Rut in Labrador
1534     Jacques Cartier explores the coast of Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island, and New Brunswick. He lands on the Gaspe Peninsula and claims the land for France.
1534 24 July Jacques Cartier, on the Gasped Peninsula, claims the area for France.
1535     Jacques Cartier journeys up the St. Lawrence to the Native settlements of Stadacona and Hochelaga. He gives Canada its name (from Indian word kanata, meaning village).
1541     Cartier returns to North America with the Sieur de Roberval to found a settlement. They named it Charlesbourg-Royal and it became the first French settlement in North America.
1542     Roberval’s expedition
1576     Martin Frobisher journeys as far as Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, on the first of three voyages in search of the Northwest Passage.
1583     Sir Humphrey Gilbert visits Newfoundland and claims it for England.
1585     Davis is dispatched to find the Northwest passage to Asia and Davis Strait is named after him
1595     Mercator’s Atlas is published
1598     La Roche’s colony is established on Sable Island
1600     Hakluyt’s Voyages is published
1600     King Henry IV of France awards a Fur trading Monopoly to a group of French merchants.
1602     Waymouth sails into Hudson Strait
1604     Pierre Du Gua de Monts and Samuel Champlain establish a colony in Nova Scotia. Marc Lescarbot starts the first library and first French school of Native people, and in 1606 produces the first play staged in Canada. After Lescarbot returns to France, he writes the first history of Canada.
1605     Port Royal is established in Nova Scotia by the French under Samuel de Champlain. -
1606     First theatrical production in Canada
1608 3 July Champlain founds Quebec City.
1608     Samuel de Champlain founds a permanent French colony at Quebec.
1609     Lippershey invents spectacles
1609     Champlain travels with the Algonquins to Lake Champlain where they attack the Iroquois and the French use firearms against the Iroquois. - Lippershey invents spectacles
1609 30 July Champlain is the first European to use firearms against Indians (Iroquois).
1610     Etienne Brule goes to live among the Huron and eventually becomes the first European to see Lakes Ontario, Huron and Superior. -
1610     Henry Hudson explores Hudson Bay and is set adrift by a mutinous crew and dies.
1610     Explorer Henry Hudson is set adrift by his mutinous crew in Hudson Bay.
1611     Etienne Brule reaches Lake Nipissing
1611 24 June Henry Hudson cast adrift in James Bay by mutineers.
1611 22 May First Jesuits arrive in New France (at Port Royal)
1612     Samuel de Champlain is named the Governor of New France
1613     Argall attacks St. Sauveur in Acadia
1613     Foundation of St. John’s Newfoundland
1615     The first Roman Catholic missionaries try to convert Native people to Christianity.
1615     Champlain discovers the Great Lakes
1616     Champlain completes eight years pf exploring, traveling as far as west Georgia Bay. The French and Huron form an alliance.
1617     Louis and Marie Hebert and their children become the first French settlers of farm land in New France.
1621     William Alexander is awarded Nova Scotia by England
1623     Founding of Avalon, Newfoundland
1625     Jesuits arrive in Quebec to begin missionary work among the Indians
1627     War breaks out between England and France
1627 29 April The Company of One Hundred Associates is founded, by Cardinal Richelieu, to establish a French Empire in North America - War breaks out between England and France
1629 20 July Champlain surrenders Quebec to Kirk brothers from England. (Port La Tour, N.S., is the only part of New France to avoid capture by English.)
1630     The first French schools are founded in Quebec by religious orders.
1631     Foxe explores the Artic looking for the North West passage
1631     Thomas James sails into Hudson Bay and discovers James Bay which is named after him
1632 29 March Treaty of Saint-Germainen-Laye returns New France to French
1634     The Huron Nation is reduced by half from European disease (smallpox epidemic, 1639)
1634     Nicolet discovers Lake Michigan
1635 25 December Champlain dies in Quebec, aged about 65.
1635     Founding of the French Academy; the Jesuit college at Quebec
1637     Kirke is named the first governor of Newfoundland
1638     Placentia Newfoundland is founded
1639     Grant of Batiscan; Jesuits found Ste. Marie among the Hurons
1639     The first Ursulines reach Quebec
1640     Discovery of Lake Erie
1642     Ville-Marie (Montreal) is founded by Paul de Maisonneuve.
1642 17 May De Maisonneuve founds Ville-Marie (Montreal)
1643 9 June Three settlers killed in first of countless Iroquois attacks on Ville-Marie.
1644     The founding of the Hotel-Dieu in Montreal
1645     The Hotel-Dieu Hospital in Ville-Marie, founded by Jeanne Mance, is completed.
1648     The First Council of New France is held
1649 16 March The Jesuit Father Jean de Brebeuf is martyred by the Iroquois at St-Ignace. The Iroquois disperse the Huron nation (1648-49)
1649     War between the Huron and Iroquois confederacies leads to the destruction of the Huron nation. The Iroquois begin raids on New France.
1649     The Iroquois disperse the Huron nation (1648-49)
1651     Jean de Lauzon is appoint Governor of New
1654     Sedgwick seizes Port Royal
1657     Arrival of the Sulpicians in Canada
1657     Pierre d’Argenson becomes Governor of New France
1658     First girls school in Montreal
1658     Francois de Laval made Apostolic Vicar of New France
1659 6 June Francois de Laval arrives at Quebec as de facto bishop of New France
1660 2 May Iroquois attack Dollard des Ormeaux near Carillon, Que.
1661     D’Avaugour becomes the Governor of New France
1661     Radisson & Des Groseilliers explore to Hudson Bay
1662     Thomas Temple is appointed Governor of Nova Scotia
1663     King Louis XIV decides to rebuild New France. He sends a governor and troops to protect the colony, and intendant (Jean Talon) to administer it, and settlers to increase its population.
1665 12 September With New France under the personal control of Louis XIV, Jean Talon arrives at Quebec as first intendant.
1666 14 September Carignan-Salieres Regiment leaves Quebec on raids into Iroquois territory that will end Iroquois harassment of New France for 23 years.
1666     Fort Temple is founded as an English stronghold in
1668 29 September English Ketch Nonsuch reaches Rupert River in James Bay, where crew will build first Hudson's Bay Company post.
1669     Lake Erie discovered.
1670     The English king grants a charter to the Hudson's Bay Company, giving it exclusive trading rights to vast territory drained by rivers the flow into Hudson Bay.
1670 2 May Hudson's Bay Company receives royal charter in London.
1671     Founding of Fort Albany on the Hudson Bay
1672     The Hudson Bay Company is charter by King James of England
1672     Albanel completes an overland trip to Hudson Bay
1672     Frontenac becomes the Governor of Quebec
1673     Jolliet and Marquette reach the Mississippi
1673     Foundation of Cataraqui (Kingston)
1673     Moose Factory and Fort Monsoni are founded
1673 12 July Frontenac awes restless Iroquois at Kingston, Ontario.
1675     Founding of Fort
1679     Sieur Du Lhut lands at present day Duluth. La Salle sails in Griffon. Griffon lost on return trip.
1680     Founding of the Comedie Francaise
1682 9 April La Salle claims Louisiana for France
1682     La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi
1682     La Barre becomes the Governor of Quebec
1682     Rene-Robert Cavalier de La Salle reaches the mouth of the Mississippi, and claims for France all the land through which the river and its tributaries flow.
1685     Denonville becomes the Governor of Quebec
1686     John Abraham explores the Churchill River
1686     Moose Factory and Rupert fall into French hands
1689     Kelsey explores the North for the Hudson Bay
1689     Frontenac begins his second term as vieregal
1689     Abenaki Indians seize Pemaquid
1689 5 August Lachine Massacre starts new series of Iroquois raids.
1690 21 October Frontenac victorious as Sir William Phips lifts four-day siege of Quebec.
1692 22 October Madeleine de Vercheres defends family fort against Iroquois.
1693     The English retake Fort Albany from the French
1694     The Tartuffe affair at Quebec
1694     Iberville seizes York
1696     Iberville’s campaign in Newfoundland
1696 4 July Frontenac and 2,000 men leave Montreal on raid that will permanently end Iroquois harassment of New France.
1697     Callieres becomes the administrator of Canada
1697 5 September Iberville in Pelican wins control of Hudson Bay.
1697     First settlement at Moncton, New Brunswick
1698     Thomas Savery patents his “steam engine”
1699     End of the Iroquois.
1700     Horses come to the northern plains, and the region's Native people become nations on horseback.
1701     Cadillac at Detroit
1701     Treaty of peace with the Iroquois Confederacy is signed.
1701 3 August Iroquois sign lasting peace with New France
1702     Having begun in Europe in1701, The War of the Spanish Succession spreads to North America (Queen Anne's War) in Acadia and New England.
1702     Leake ravaged French Newfoundland
1703     Vaudreuil becomes Governor of Quebec and Beauharnois becomes Intendant
1704     New flood of card money in Canada.
1705     J Raudot becomes the Intendant of Canada
1706     Opening of Montreal’s public marketplace
1707     Denis Papin constructs his first steamboat
1708     St. Johns falls into French hands
1710     Port Royal falls to the English.
1710     Montreal's public marketplace opens.
1710 12 October Port Royal surrenders for the last time to the English
1711     Abortive invasion of New France.
1713     Acadia, Newfoundland and Hudson's Bay Company become English.
1713 11 April Treaty of Utrecht cedes Hudson Bay, Newfoundland, New Brunswick and mainland Nova Scotia to England.
1713     The Treaty of Utrecht ends Queen Anne's War, confirming British possession of Hudson Bay, Newfoundland and Acadia (except l'Ile- Royale [Cape Breton Island]). France starts building Fort Louisbourg near the eastern tip of l'Ile-Royale.
1713     A peace treaty forces France to turn over Newfoundland and Acadia to Britain. The French begin construction of Louisbourg, strongest fortress in North America, on Cape Breton Island.
1715     Beginning of the ginseng boom.
1717     Construction begins on Fortress Louisbourg.
1718     The foundation of New Orleans
1720     Fort Rouille founded on the site of Toronto.
1721     Scroggs looks for a North West passage, while Richard Norton explores by land 1726 Beauharnois becomes Governor of New
1726     The first English school in Newfoundland is established, known as "the school for poor people".
1729     Reorganization of Newfoundland by the English
1730     The Mississauga drive the Seneca Iroquois south of Lake Erie.
1731     The La Vérendrye family organize expeditions beyond Lake Winnipeg and direct fur trade toward the east. They are the first recorded Europeans to sight the Canadian Rockies from the East.
1731     Gilles Hocquart becomes the Intendant of New France
1736     The Beauce country opened for settlement
1737     Opening of the North shore road from Quebec to Montreal
1737     Opening of the north shore road from Quebec to Montreal.
1737     Grey Sisters founded in Canada
1738     Opening of the St. Maurice Ironworks; founding of Port La Reine (Portage La Prairie) and Fort Rouge (Winnipeg, Manitoba).
1740     The Mandan Indians west of the Great Lakes begin to trade in horses descended from those brought to Texas by the Spanish. Itinerant Assiniboine Indians bring them from Mandan settlements to their own territories southwest of Lake Winnipeg.
1743     Discovery of the Rocky Mountains
1743     Discovery of the Rocky Mountains.
1743     Louis-Joseph, son of Pierre de la Verendrye, explores westward in search of the "Western Sea", crossing the plains almost to Rocky Mountains.
1744     Having begun in Europe in 1770, The War of the Austrian Succession spreads to North America (King George's War).
1744     Duvivier seizes Canso but fails at Annapolis
1745     New England forces seize Louisbourg.
1745 15 June Fortress Louisbourg surrenders to the English (but will be handed back three years later).
1747     La Galissoniere becomes Governor of New France
1748     Bigot becomes Intendant of New France
1748     Louisbourg and l'Ile-Royale are returned to France by the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle. -
1749     Foundation of Halifax.
1749 21 June Halifax founded by the English to offset Louisbourg.
1749     The British found Halifax as a naval and military post; about 3 000 people settle there in one year.
1750     Fort Beausejour is built by the French - Fort Lawrence is built by the English
1750     The Ojibwa begin to emerge as a distinct tribal amalgamation of smaller independent bands. German immigrants begin to arrive in numbers at Halifax.
1750     Building of Fort Lawrence.
1752 23 March Canada's first newspaper, the Halifax Gazette, appears.
1752 25 March First issue of the Halifax Gazette, Canada's first newspaper.
1753     Lunenburg, Nova Scotia, is founded.
1754     Wilkinson’s first steel mill at Bradley
1754     Beginning of the French and Indian War in America, though not officially declared for another two years
1754     Fort Duquesne is constructed
1754     Jumonville is killed on the Ohio
1754     Anthony Henday explores the west
1754     Fort Necessity capitulates
1755 28 July Acadians ordered deported.
1755     The expulsion of the Acadians by the British begins; 6 000 to 10 000 Acadians were driven from their homes.
1756     The Seven Years War between Great Britain and France begins, fought partly in their North America colonies.
1756     The Marquis de Montcalm assumes a troubled command of French troops in North America and proceeds to capture Fort Oswego.
1757     Fort William Henry falls
1758 8 July French troops, under the command of Louis-Joseph de Montcalm, win victory over the British at Carillon (Ticonderoga).
1758 26 July The British capture Louisbourg from the French.
1758 26 July Louisbourg surrenders to the English for second time. (Now it will be destroyed)
1759 13 September Wolfe defeats Montcalm on Plains of Abraham.
1759 13 September At the Battle of the Plains of Abraham, Quebec falls to the British. Both commander, Wolfe and Montcalm, are killed.
1760 8 September Montreal surrenders to the English
1760 8 September New France surrenders to the British.
1760     The British Conquest is assured when Levis wins the battle of St Foy. General James Murray is appointed first British military governor of Québec.
1760     Nova Scotia townships of Chester, Dublin, Liverpool, Cornwallis, Campbelton and Kentville are formed
1763 10 February Treaty of Paris seals the fall of New France
1763     New France becomes a British colony called Quebec. Alliance of Native nations under Pontiac, chief of the Ottawa, makes war on the British, seizing many forts and trading posts.
1764     Murray becomes civil governor of Québec, but his attempts to appease French Canadians are disliked by British merchants.
1768     Guy Carleton succeeds Murray as governor of Québec.
1769     Prince Edward Island, formerly part of Nova Scotia, becomes separate British colony.
1770     Samuel Hearne, guided by Chipewyan leader Matonabbee, explores in a two-years voyage the Coppermine and Slave rivers and Great Slave Lake. He is the first white man to reach the Artic Ocean overland.
1772     The Hudson's Bay Company opens Cumberland House on the Saskatchewan. 1774 Carleton's recommendations are instituted in the Québec Act, which introduces B British criminal law but retains French civil law and guarantees religious freedom for Roman Catholics. The Act's geographical claims were so great that it helped precipitate the American Revolution.
1773     Scottish settlers reach Pictou, Nova Scotia, aboard the Hector.
1774 22 June Quebec Act, guaranteeing civil, language and religious rights to French Canadians, comes into force.
1774     Quebec Act is passed by British Parliament, recognizing the French Canadian's right to preserve their language, religion, and civil law.
1775 31 December American rebels' invasion stemmed at Quebec.
1775     The American Revolution begins gaining independence from Great Britain for the Thirteen Colonies. The people of Quebec, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island decide against joining the revolution.
1775 31 December American invaders under General Montgomery assault Quebec. The city is under siege until spring, when British reinforcements drive the Americans away.
1776     The fur traders of Montreal band together in the North West Company to compete with the traders of the Hudson's Bay Company.
1776 6 May Under Carleton, Québec withstands an American siege until the appearance of a British fleet. Carleton is later knighted.
1778     Captain James Cook explores the Pacific Coast from Nootka, Vancouver Island, to the Bering Strait.
1783     The American revolutionary war ends.
1783     In Montréal and Grand Portage (in present-day Minnesota), the North West Company is formed by a group of trading partners.
1783     The border between Canada and the U.S. is accepted from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake of the Woods.
1783     In the area around the mouth of the Saint John River in Nova Scotia, thousands of United Empire Loyalists arrive to settle, with some heading on to Quebec. Loyalists are identified as those American colonists of British, Dutch, Irish, Scottish and other origins, and others who had remained loyal to their King during the American Revolution and were behind British lines by 1783. (Those who arrive after 1783 are called Late Loyalists.) Pennsylvania Germans begin moving into modern-day southwestern Ontario, then southwestern Québec
1783     Around 40 000 United Empire Loyalist from the Thirteen Colonies start immigrating to Canada. Most settle in Nova Scotia, Quebec, and New Brunswick (established as a colony separate from Nova Scotia in 1784). Three thousand Black Loyalists settle near Shelburne, Nova Scotia.
1783 18 May First Loyalists land at Saint John, N.B.
1784 16 August Province of New Brunswick formed.
1784     After helping the British during the American Revolution, the Iroquois are given two land grants. Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) settles his followers at the Six Nations Reserve, near Brantford.
1785     The city of Saint John, N.B. is incorporated.
1785     Fredericton opens a Provincial Academy of Arts and Sciences, the germ of the University of New Brunswick (1859).
1789     At the behest of the North West Company, Alexander Mackenzie journeys to the Beaufort Sea, following what would later be named the Mackenzie River.
1791 19 June Province of Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) formed.
1791     With western Québec filling with English-speaking Loyalists, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divides Québec into Upper and Lower Canada (modern-day Ontario and Quebec).
1791     Quebec is divided into two colonies, Upper and Lower Canada, each with its own Assembly.
1792     Captain George Vancouver starts summer voyages to explore the coast of mainland British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
1792 28 August Captains Vancouver and Quadra meet at Nootka Sound to settle British and Spanish claims to the Pacific coast.
1793 27 August York (Toronto) founded.
1793     York (now Toronto) is founded by John Graves Simcoe, lieutenant-governor of Upper Canada.
1793     By canoe and on foot, Alexander Mackenzie crosses the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range, reaching the Pacific Ocean on July 22.
1793 22 July Alexander Mackenzie, first man to cross North America north of Mexico, records his arrival at the Pacific on a rock near Bella Coola, B.C.
1794 19 November An American diplomat, John Jay, oversees the signing of Jay's Treaty (Nov. 19) between the U.S. and Britain. It promises British evacuation of the Ohio Valley forts and marks the beginning of international arbitration to settle boundary disputes.
1796     York becomes the capital of Upper Canada.
1797     Having worked for the Hudson's Bay Company since 1784, David Thompson joins the North West Company as a surveyor and mapmaker, eventually surveying hundreds of thousands of square miles of western North America. Americans launch their first lake schooner, the Washington, on Lake Erie near Presque Isle.
1798     A new fur-trading company is formed to compete with the North West Company. Confusingly called the New North West Company, it is nicknamed the XY Company from the way it differentiates its bales from those of its competitor. Northwest Fur Company build lock at Sault Ste. Marie, Canada. Lock is 38 ft x 8 3/4 ft with 30 inch depth over sills.
1800     Lake trade expands until by 1817 there are some 20 merchant vessels on Lake Erie.
1802     Mackenzie is knighted and becomes a member of the XY Company.
1803     The XY Company is reorganized under Mackenzie's name.
1803     First paper mill established in Lower Canada, producing paper from cloth rags.
1804     The earliest Fraktur paintings appear in Lincoln county, Ontario.
1804     The XY Company is absorbed by the North West Company.
1806     Le Canadian, a Québec nationalist newspaper, is founded.
1807     Fulton sails Hudson River in first steamboat.
1807     Slavery is abolished in British colonies.
1808     Simon Fraser travels the Fraser River for 1360 km to reach the Pacific Ocean on July 2.
1808 2 July Nor' Western Simon Fraser reaches the mouth of the Fraser River
1811 15 July Nor' Western David Thompson reaches the mouth of the Columbia River.
1811     Lord Selkirk plans a settlement of Highland Scots in Red River area, near present site of Winnipeg. First settlers arrive at Hudson Bay in the fall of 1811.
1812 13 October Americans defeated (but Sir Isaac Brock killed) in the Battle of Queenstown Heights.
1812 12 September Selkirk settlers reach Winnipeg
1812 18 June United States declares war on Britain (the War of 1812)
1812     The War of 1812, between the United States and Britain begins.
1812 12 August Detroit surrenders to British general Isaac Brock and Tecumseh, leader of the Native nations allied to Britain.
1812 13 October Brock is killed during the Battle of Queenstown Heights.
1813 25 Oct The Battles of Chateauguay with mostly French-Canadian soldiers is a Canadian Victory over larger Amercian forces
1813 5 Oct Battle of Moraviantown which is an American victory and is also known as the Battle of the Thames, British supporter and Shawnee Indian Chief Tecumseh is killed.
1813 11 Nov Crysler's Farm with English-Canadian soldiers ia a victory over larger American troops.
1813     Perry’s victory on Lake Erie gives US rights to all Great Lakes.
1813 22 June Laura Second warns British troops of impending American attack. ( Seventeen days earlier, scout Billy Green had revealed details of American troop positions. Both reports lead to British victories.)
1813 27 April Americans burn York
1813 5 October Tecumseh dies during the British defeat of Moraviantown.
1813 23 June Beaver Dam is Canadian victory, the latter in part due to Laura Secord's famous 32 km, walk to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon, who had already been warned by Indians.
1813 5 June The Battles of Stoney Creek is Canadian Victory
1813 11 November Americans defeated at the Battle of Chrysler's Farm, Near Morrisbourg, Ont.
1813 26 October Americans defended at the Battle of Chateauguay, near Montreal
1813 10 Sept The Battles of Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie is Amercian Victory
1813 27 April Americans capture Fort York at present-day Toronto.
1813 22 June Laura Secord overhears American troops planning an attack, and walks 30 km, crossing enemy lines, to warn Colonel James FitzGibbon. Two days later, the Americans are ambushed and surrender to FitzGibbon.
1814 24 December The Treaty of Ghent officially ends the war.
1814 24 December Treaty of Ghent ends the War of 1812, returns captured territory to the Americans.
1816 19 June Métis and a few Indians Massacre Selkirk settlers at Seven Oaks (Winnipeg)
1817     First two lake steamers, Frontenac and Ontario, are launched on Lake Ontario. The Rush-Bagot agreement limits the number of battleships on the Great Lakes to a total of eight.
1818     Canada's border is defined as the 49th Parallel from Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains.
1819 26 September Edward Parry anchors for a 10 month stay off Melville Island, (He is the first searcher for the Northwest Passage to winter the artic by Choice.)
1821     The Lachine Canal is completed.
1821 26 March Hudson's Bay Company absorbs North West Company.
1822     Louis-Joseph Papineau, a member of the legislative assembly since 1814, travels from Montréal to England to oppose an Act of Union identifying the French Canadians as a minority without language rights. The act is not passed in the British Parliament.
1824     Fort Gratiot Light, first on Lake Huron.
1824     The first Welland Canal is completed, partly in response to American initiatives in the Erie Canal. Erie Canal completed in 1825 by the State of New York providing waterway between Buffalo on Lake Erie and Albany on the Hudson River, the greatest single transportation factor in early settlement of the like region and growth of lake navigation Work on Welland Canal starts.
1825 7 October Miramichi Fire kills more than 160 persons and consumes 6,000 square miles of forest in New Brunswick.
1826 6 June Reform editor William Lyon Mackenzie's printing shop in York is wrecked by Family Compact members
1826     Royal engineer Col. John By builds the Rideau Canal.
1829 6 June Shawnandithit, the last of the Beothuks, dies at about age twenty-eight in St. John's, Newfoundland.
1830     Escaped slaves Josiah and Charlotte Henson and their children journey north from Maryland to Canada. The Henson's later help found a community of ex-slaves called Dawn, near Dresden, Ontario.
1832 21 May British troops kill three French Canadians in street riot following Patriot by-election victory
1832   June Immigrants with Cholera land at Quebec. By September the disease will kill 3,800 there 4,000 in Montreal
1832     The Rideau Canal, built by Colonel John By, opens; the community of Bytown (later Ottawa), grows out of the camp for the canal workers.
1834     York is renamed Toronto.
1834     William Lyon Mackenzie becomes the first mayor of Toronto.
1835 3 March Reform newspaper publisher Joseph Howe's oratory wins him acquittal on a libel charge and establishes freedom of the press.
1836     The first railway in Canada opens, running from La Prairie to St. John's, Quebec.
1836 12 July Canada's first railway, the Champlain and St. Lawrence, starts service between Laprairie and Saint-Jean, Que.
1837 7 December Upper Canada rebels scatter after militiamen attack and burn Montgomery's Tavern (rebel headquarters)
1837 5 December Mackenzie and Upper Canada rebels marching on Toronto are stopped by a militia ambush.
1837     Along with a general feeling that the government was not democratic, the failure of the executive committee to maintain the confidence of the elected officials leads to violent but unsuccessful rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada. The leaders, W.L. Mackenzie (Reformers) and Louis-Joseph Papineau (Patriotes), both escape to the U.S.
1837 23 November Patriot rebels defeat British troop at Saint-Denis, Que.
1837 25 November British troops defeat Patriots at Saint-Charles, Que.
1837 14 December Patriots crushed by British troops at Saint-Eustache, Que
1837     Rebellions in Upper and Lower Canada are put down by government troops. The rebel leaders, Louis-Joseph Papineau of Lower Canada and William Lyon Mackenzie of Upper Canada, are forced to flee.
1838     Lord Durham comes to Canada as governor. He recommends that the governments of the colonies should be chosen by the people's elected representatives.
1839     Lord Durham's report recommends the establishment of responsible government and the union of Upper and Lower Canada to speed the assimilation of French-speaking Canadians. Territorial disputes between lumbermen from Maine and New Brunswick lead to armed conflict in the Aroostook River valley (the Aroostook War).
1839 31 January Durham Report urges responsible government and political union for Lower and Upper Canada, and assimilation for French Canadians.
1840     Britannia - the first ship of the Cunrad Line, founded by Samuel Cunrad of Halifax - arrives in Halifax harbor with transatlantic mail.
1841 10 February Upper Canada becomes Canada West, and Lower Canada becomes Canada East: they are united into Province of Canada
1841     The Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada (which became Canada West and East) into the Province of Canada, under one government, with Kingston as capital.
1842   Aug The Independent Order of Odd Fellows breaks from the Manchester Unity, soon opening lodges in Montréal and Halifax. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty ends the Aroostook War, settling once and for all the Maine-New Brunswick border dispute.
1842     Charles Fenetry of Sackville, New Brunswick, discovers a practical way to make paper from wood pulp. Today the pulp and paper industry is Canada's largest manufacturing industry, and Canada exports more pulp and paper than any other country in the world.
1843     James Douglas of the Hudson's Bay Company founds Victoria and Vancouver Island.
1843 15 March Work starts on the Vancouver Island HBC post that will become Victoria.
1844     Amnesty in Montréal provides for Papineau's return.
1845     Sir John Franklin and his crew disappear in the Arctic while searching the Northwest Passage.
1846     Geologist and chemist Abraham Gesner of Nova Scotia invents kerosene oil and becomes the founder of the modern petroleum industry.
1846 15 June Oregon Treaty sets the 49th parallel as the western Canada/U.S. boundary.
1847 24 May Lieut. Graham Gore's sledge party leaves the icebound ships of the Franklin Expedition to seek the last link in the Northwest passage.
1848     The so-called Great Ministry of Robert Baldwin and Louis-H. Lafontaine outlines the principles of responsible government in the Canadas. The Maritimes are brought into the plan by Howe, then a reform-minded member of the House of Assembly.
1848 11 March The Province of Canada's first responsible government by party - the Great Reform ministry led by Louis-Hippolyte Lafontaine and Robert Baldwin - takes office. Reform Ministry led by Louis-Hopolyte LaFontaine and Robert Baldwin-takes office.
1848 22 April Franklin expedition ships Erbus and Terror abandoned. All 130 expeditions members will perish.
1849 25 April English Tory mob burns the parliament buildings in Montreal after Governor General Lord Elgin signs the rebellion Losses Bill.
1849     An Act of Amnesty provides for W.L. Mackenzie's return from exile in the U.S.
1849     The boundary of the 49th Parallel is extended to the Pacific Ocean.
1850     Plains Indian culture is at its height, sustained by the use of horses and the exploitation of large game.
1850     The site of By's headquarters during the construction of the Rideau Canal is incorporated as Bytown.
1851     Britain transfers control of the colonial postal system to Canada.
1851 23 May Marco Polo, to be the fastest ship in the world, launched at Saint John, New Brunswick.
1851 23 May Province of Canada issues British North America's first postage stamp.
1851     Canada's first postage stamp is issued, a three-penny stamp with a beaver on it.
1852     Laval's Séminaire du Québec founds Université Laval, North America's oldest French Language university.
1852     The Grand Trunk Railway receives its charter.
1854 6 June Canada and the U.S. sign a Reciprocity Treaty, ensuring reduction of customs duties.
1855     Bytown is renamed Ottawa.
1856     Timothy Eaton opens his first general store, in Kirkton, Ontario. Thirteen years later he opens a store at the corner of Queen and Yonge in Toronto.
1856     The Grand Trunk Railway opens its Toronto-Montréal line.
1857     Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa as the new capital of the United Province of Canada.
1858     The Halifax-Truro line begins rail service.
1858 19 November James Douglas, already governor of Vancouver Island, sworn in as governor of British Columbia
1858     Chinese immigrants from California arrive in British Columbia, attracted by the Fraser River Gold Rush.
1858     Gold is discovered in the sandbars of the Fraser River. Some twenty thousand miners rush to the area, and it comes under British rule as the colony of British Columbia.
1859     French acrobat Blondin crosses Niagara Falls on a tightrope. On later tightrope walks, he crosses the falls on stilts, blindfolded, and with his feet in a sack.
1860 1 Sept The cornerstone of the Parliament buildings is laid.
1861     Howe becomes Premier of Nova Scotia.
1862     Mount Allison University accepts the first woman student in Sackville, N.B.
1862 21 August Billy Barker strikes gold on Williams Creek in the Caribou country of British Columbia
1864     Confederation conferences in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, September 1-9, and in Quebec, October 10-29. Delegates hammer out the conditions for the union of British North American colonies.
1864 1 September Charlottetown Conference opens to discuss the confederation of British North America colonies.
1864 10 October Quebec Conference opens to continue confederation talks. ( It will settle the fundamentals upon which the British North American Act will be based.)
1866 4 Dec The London Conference passes resolutions which are redrafted as the British North America Act.
1866 2 June The Fenians, a group of radical Irish-Americans organized in New York in 1859 to oppose British presence in Ireland, begin a series of raids on Canadian territory in the hopes of diverting British troops from the homeland. The most serious of these was the Battle of Ridgeway, which lent a special urgency to the Confederation movement.
1866 19 November Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia are combined into one colony named British Columbia.
1866 9 June Private Timothy O'Hara extinguishes a fire in a boxcar of ammunition at Danville. Que., and wins the only Victoria Cross ever rewarded for an act in Canada.
1866 2 June Battle of Ridgeway climaxes biggest Fenian raid into Canada.
1867 1 July Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, and Quebec.
1867 1 July Dominion of Canada comes into being: Sir John A. Macdonald sworn in as prime minister.
1867 8 March British parliament passes the British North America Act.
1867 29 March The British North America Act is passed by Britain's Parliament, providing for Canada's Confederation.
1867 1 July Confederation: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario form the Dominion of Canada. John A. Macdonald becomes the first prime minister.
1867     Emily Stowe, the first woman doctor in Canada, begins to practice medicine in Toronto.
1868 7 April Thomas D'Arcy McGee, one of the fathers of Confederation and an outspoken enemy of the Fenians, becomes Canada's first assassination victim at the hands of a Fenian.
1869 22 June Canadian Parliament agrees to buy Rupert's Land - All the Hudson's Bay Company territory.
1869 8 December Riel establishes a legal provisional government in Rupert's Land.
1869     The Métis of Red River rebel, under Louis Riel, after their region is purchased by Canada from Hudson's Bay Company.
1869 2 November Louis Riel and Métis occupy Lower Fort Garry. The red River Rebellion has begun.
1870 15 July Métis rights recognized, as Manitoba becomes a province. (But Riel will have to flee Canada because of Scott's execution.)
1870 15 July Manitoba joins Confederation. The new province was much smaller than today's Manitoba.
1870     As buffalo become scarce, the last tribal war is fought on the Prairies between the Cree and the Blackfoot over hunting territories.
1870 15 July Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: Manitoba, Northwest Territories
1870 4 March Thomas Scott executed on orders of Riel.
1870     Demand for leather goods leads to the destruction of northern bison herds, which in turn leads to the collapse of the western native economy.
1871 20 July Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: Prince Edward Island
1871 20 July Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: British Columbia
1871 20 July British Columbia joins Confederation.
1873 2 April The Pacific Scandal erupts: Prime Minister Macdonald accused of corruption in negotiations over a transcontinental railway. ( His government will be forced to resign.)
1873     Prime Minister Sir John Macdonald resigns as a result of scandal over the partial financing of the Conservative election campaign by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company.
1873   May American whisky traders kill fifty-six Assiniboine in the Cypress Hills of the southern Prairies. The North-West Mounted Police (later the RCMP) is formed to keep order in the new Canadian territories.
1873 1 July Prince Edward Island joins Confederation.
1874 8 July The Mounties leave Fort Dufferin on their march west to wipe out the whisky trade.
1874 26 July Alexander Graham Bell discloses the invention of the telephone to his father at the family home on the outskirts of Brantford, Ontario.
1874     Anabaptists (Russian Mennonites) start to arrive in Manitoba from various Russian colonies.
1874   Feb Riel is elected to the House of Commons but cannot take the seat.
1874 27 October William D. Lawrence, the biggest wooden ship ever built in the Maritimes, launched at Maitland, N.S.
1875     Grace Lockhart receives from Mount Allison University the first Bachelor of Arts degree awarded to a woman.
1875     Jennie Trout becomes the first woman licensed to practice medicine in Canada, although Emily Stowe has been doing so without a license in Toronto since 1867.
1875   June Bell's first functioning telephone is demonstrated in Boston.
1875     The Supreme Court of Canada is established.
1875     Riel is granted amnesty with the condition that he be banished for five years.
1876 The Toronto Women's Literary Club is founded as a front for the suffrage movement.
1876 10 August The world's first long-distance phone call connects the Bell residence with a shoe and boot store in nearby Paris, Ontario (Aug. 10).
1876 1 July The Intercolonial Railway, growing out of the Halifax-Truro line, links central Canada and the Maritimes.
1876   August Scottish-born Alexander Graham Bell, who has been working on the invention of the telephone since 1874, makes the world's first long-distance call, from Brantford to Paris, Ontario.
1876 3 August The first intelligible telephone call between two buildings is made groom Brantford, Ont,. To Mount Pleasant, two miles away.
1877     The provincial legislature creates the University of Manitoba, the oldest University in western Canada.
1877 22 September Treaty No.7 cedes the last big section of Prairie land to the government of Canada.
1878     The Conservatives under Macdonald win federal election.
1878 17 September Secret ballot used for the first time in a federal general election.
1878     Anti- Chinese sentiment in British Columbia reaches a high point as the government bans Chinese workers from public works.
1879 12 March Macdonald introduces protective tariffs, a transcontinental railway, and immigration to the west in his National Policy.
1879 8 February Sandford Fleming proposes the idea of standard time.
1879     The first organized games of hockey, using a flat puck, are played by McGill University students in Montreal. Before this, hockey-like games have been played on ice with a ball.
1880     Britain transfer the Arctic, which it claims to own, to Canada, completing Canada's modern boundaries - except for Newfoundland and Labrador.
1880     Emily Stowe is finally granted a license to practice medicine in Toronto.
1880     The Canadian Pacific Railway recruits thousands of underpaid Chinese Labourers.
1883     Augusta Stowe, daughter of Emily, is the first woman to graduate from the Toronto Medical School. The Toronto Women's Suffrage Association replaces the Literary Club of 1876.
1884     A system of international standard time and official time zones, advocated by Canadian engineer Sir Sandford Fleming, is adopted.
1885 16 Nov Riel is hanged in Regina.
1885     The Métis North-West Rebellion is led by Louis Riel and Gabriel Dumont. After early victories for the rebels, the rebellion is crushed by troops who arrive on the newly built railway.
1885 16 November Riel hanged at Regina.
1885 16 November Last spike of the CPR driven at Craigellachie, British Columbia.
1885 12 May Batoche falls, Riel taken prisoner
1885 28 January More than 300 voyageurs, the first Canadians to serve in an overseas ways, reach Khartoum after guiding a British a British expedition up the Nile River.
1885 7 November The last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line is driven at Craigellachie, BC. The next year, Vancouver is founded as the railway's western terminus.
1885 3 June Crees, and whites led by Mounties, fight the last military engagement on Canadian soil (near Loon Lake, Sask.)
1885     Riel, who had become an American citizen in Montana in 1883 only to return to Canada in 1884, leads the North West Rebellion.
1885 2 May The Métis are defeated at Batoche.
1885 7 Nov The last spike of the transcontinental railway is put in place in the Eagle Pass, B.C. .
1885 18 March Louis Riel proclaims an illegal provisional government at Batoche, Sask. The Northwest Rebellion has begun.
1887     The Liberals choose Wilfred Laurier as leader.
1887     The first provincial Premiers' conference takes place in Québec City.
1890     Isaac Shupe invents a curious sheet-metal clothing scrubber that automatically releases soap.
1890   March Manitoba Liberals under Thomas Greenway halt public finding of Catholic schools.
1891     The City of Toronto establishes the first Children's Aid Society in Canada.
1891 6 June John A. Macdonald dies age 76.
1893     Lord Stanley, the governor general, donates the Stanley Cup as a hockey trophy.
1893     The National Council of Women of Canada is founded.
1895     The Yukon is made into a provisional district separate from the Northwest territories.
1896 17 August George Carmack stakes a claim after striking gold on Rabbit Creek in the Klondike.
1896 17 November Clifford Sifton named minister of the interior with the task of filling the Prairies with settlers.
1896     The economic depression ends.
1896     Gold is discover in the Klondike. By the next year, 100 000 people are rushing to the Yukon in hope of getting rich.
1896 16 August Gold is discovered in the Klondike.
1896     Liberals under Laurier (the first French Canadian prime minister) win federal election partly on the Manitoba Schools Question, though his compromises are not instituted until 1897.
1897     L.T. Snow patents a simple mechanical meat grinder.
1898 13 July Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: Yukon Territory
1898     The Klondike Gold Rush is fully under way. The Yukon provisional district is identified as a Territory separate from the Northwest Territories.
1898     Doukhobours begin to settle in Saskatchewan.
1899     The Boer War in South Africa stars, fought between Dutch Afrikaners (Boers) and the British. Seven thousand Canadian volunteers fight on the British side.
1899 30 October First Canadian troops embark for the South African war.
1899 30 October The first Canadian troops sent overseas participate in the Boer War in South Africa.
1899 10 December Boer War-Battle of Stormberg; engagement at Vaalkop (Surprise Hill), Ladysmith; attack fort near Mafeking
1899 26 December Boer War-Skirmish, Game Tree Fort (Platboomfort), Mafeking
1899     Canada's first woman lawyer is Clara Brett Martin.
1899 28 November Boer War-Battle of Modder River (Tweeriviere); engagement at Carter's Ridge, (Lazarets Hill), Kimberley, Cape Colony
1900 18 February Boer War-The Battle of Monte Cristo, Natal
1900     Reginald Fessenden transmits the world's first wireless spoken message via radio, and six years later the two-way voice transmission. His credited with the discovery of the super-heterodyne principle, the basis of all modern broadcasting.
1900     Jack Caffery of Hamilton, Ontario, wins the Boston Marathon in 2:39:44. Two other Canadian, Bill Sherring and Fred Hughson, finished second and third. Caffery won again in 1901.
1900 25 June Boer War-Skirmish, Leliefontein, Senekal, OFS
1900 10 May Boer War-Attack on Mafeking
1900 23 February Boer War-Battle of Hart's Hill (Terrace Hill), Natal
1900 18 February Boer War-The Battle of Paardeberg
1900 23 Dec Canadian-born Reginald Fessenden makes the first wireless radio broadcast near Washington, D.C., narrowly beating Marconi, who receives the first transatlantic radio message at St. John's, Newfoundland, in the following year.
1900 20 January Boer War-Battle of Tabanyama, Natal
1900 23 January Boer War-Battle of Spioenkop, Natal
1902     The first symphony orchestra in Canada is created in Quebec City.
1902 19 January Boer War-Attack, concentration camp/ blockhouseline, Pietersburg, Tvl
1902     Le Roy, the first true Canadian "production car", is built by the Good brothers, Milton and Nelson, in their company in Berlin, Ontario, (now Kitchener) that they founded in 1899. Its name came from the French "le roi", meaning the king, and its currently on display at the Doon Heritage Crossroads museum in Kitchener.
1903     Silver is discovered in Cobalt, Ontario, along with cobalt and nickel. Ontario rapidly became one of the world's leading silver producing districts, yielding more than 18,000 metric tonnes of silver between 1903 and 1989, when the last mine closed.
1903     The first nude demonstrations of the Doukhobours take place near Yorkton, Saskatchewan, to protest governmental policy regarding individual ownership.
1903 20 Oct Canada loses the Alaska boundary dispute when British tribunal representative Lord Alverstone sides with the U.S.. Silver is discovered in Northern Ontario.
1903     The Ivanhoe, a popular electric car, is made by Canada Cycle and Motor Co. of Toronto
1904     Canada wins an Olympic gold medal in soccer. Though known more as a country that specialized in hockey, a team from Galt, Ontario, defeated the Americans for gold at the Olympics in St. Louis.
1904     Charles Saunders, a native of London, Ontario, developed the Marquis wheat at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa. Maturing early than other varieties, this strain of wheat produced larger crops and resisted the cold and strong winds. The Marquis is given credit for bringing prosperity to Canada's prairies.
1905 1 September Saskatchewan and Alberta join Confederation. Immigrants rush to settle in the plains, mainly as wheat farmers.
1906 31 August Roald Amundsen's Gjoa reaches Nome, Alaska, after becoming the first ship to sail the Northwest Passage.
1906 1 September Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: Alberta, Saskatchewan
1906     Norwegian Roald Amundsen, in the schooner Gjoa, finds his way through the Northwest Passage to the Pacific.
1906 7 May Sir Adam Beck creates the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, the largest such company in Canada.
1907   December Canada Dry Ginger Ale is first bottled.
1907     Tom Longboat, an Onondaga from the Six Nations Reserve and world runner, wins the Boston Marathon in record time. In 1906 he won a 20 km race against a horse.
1908     The Parliament passed the Tobacco Restraint Act prohibiting the sale of tobacco to person under 16, and prohibiting them from purchasing or possessing tobacco.
1908     A branch of the Royal Mint is established in Ottawa, making for the first time coins in Canada.
1908     Anne of Green Gables, by Lucy Maud Montgomery, is published. In the next ninety years the book sells more than a million copies, is made into a television movie, and becomes a popular musical.
1908     Peter Verigin, leader of the Doukhobours since his arrival in Canada in 1902, leads the extremist Sons of Freedom to British Columbia.
1909     The first powered, heavier-than-air flight in Canada is made by J.A.D.McCurdy in the Silver Dart. The biplane flew almost a kilometer.
1909     The first Grey Cup game; the University of Toronto football team defeats Toronto Parkdale. A trophy has been donated by the governor general, Earl Grey.
1909 1 July Joseph-Elzear Bernier affirms Canadian sovereignty in the High Artic by erecting a plaque on Melville Island.
1909 23 February J. A. D. McCurdy makes the first manned flight in the British Empire, at Baddect, N.S.
1909     The Boundary Waters Treaty between Canada and United States creates the International Joint Commission, which first mission was to investigate the pollution of the Great Lakes in 1912. Its research and advocacy led to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement in 1972.
1909     Canada's first powered air flight takes place at Baddeck, N.S.
1909     The first Grey Cup is played.
1909     The Department of External Affairs is formed.
1910 4 May Royal Canadian Navy formed.
1910     William Gibson built the first aircraft engine in Canada in Victoria, BC. It produced fifty-five horsepower and was installed in the Gibson twin plane, the first one in North America to use contra rotating propellers.
1910     Laurier creates a Canadian navy the Naval Service Bill.
1911     A proposal for free trade between the United States and Canada is rejected in a fiercely contested general election. The Liberal government, under Wilfrid Laurier, is replaced by a Conservative government led by Sir William Borden.
1911     The last Dominion of Canada four-dollar notes were issued, being replaced by the five-dollar notes in 1912. Legislation was passed authorizing the striking of the silver dollar, Canada's first dollar coin, and two patterns for 1911 dollars were struck in silver.
1911     Robert Borden and the Conservatives win federal election, defeating Laurier on the issue of Reciprocity.
1912     A botanist, Carrie Derrick, is Canada's first woman professor, at McGill University.
1913     Vilhjalmur Stefansson leads a Canadian expedition to the Arctic, and explores the North by deliberately drifting on ice floes.
1914 25 December Troops share an unofficial Christmas Truce in the Western Front trenches.
1914 21 October Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry is assigned to the British 80th Brigade and become the first Canadians in France.
1914 15 September Trenches first dug on the Western Front
1914 23 August Germans and British troops engage for the first time at Mons. British slow the German advance
1914 4 August Britain declares war on Germany, automatically drawing Canada into the conflict.
1914 8 August US declares itself neutral
1914 5 August Canada commits 25,000 troops to support England.
1914 4 August Germany invades Belgium, establishing the Western Front war, Britain declares war
1914 3 August Germany declares war on France
1914 1 August Germany declares war on Russia
1914 14 October First Canadian Troops arrive in Britain
1914     The Komagata Maru drops anchor in Burrard Inlet, sparking political maneuvers intended to exclude unwanted Sikh immigrants (May-July).
1914 29 May Empress of Ireland sinks in the St. Lawrence; 1, 015 perish.
1914 4 August Britain declares war on Germany. Canada is automatically at war too.
1914     The First World War begins. Britain declares war on Germany on behalf of the British Empire, including Canada.
1914 29 May One thousand and twelve people died when Canadian Pacific steamer Empress of Ireland collided with Norwegian ship Storstad in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. It’s the worst maritime disaster in Canadian history.
1914 19 June A dust explosion at a coal mine in Hillcrest, Alberta, kills 189 miners.
1914     Annie Langstaff was the first woman to graduate with a law degree in Quebec. She was not able to practice, though, because Quebec Bar refused to admit her, who end up working as a legal clerk.
1914   August Canada goes off the gold standard, breaking forever the link between national gold reserves and the money supply.
1914     Parliament passes the War Measures Act, allowing suspension of civil rights during periods of emergency.
1914 29 May The C.P. ship Empress of Ireland sinks in the St. Lawrence within fifteen minutes of a collision in dense fog. Over one thousand lives are lost. With nearly four hundred passengers on board,
1914 3 Oct The first Canadian troops leave for England.
1914 29 July Britain warns Canada of deteriorating situation in Europe.
1914 28 June Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary assassinated in Sarajevo
1914 4 September Aproximately 32,000 men have assembled at Valcartier.
1914 14 October 1st contingent C.E.F. arrives in England.
1914 3 October 1st contingent Canadian Expeditionary Force sails for England.
1914 19 August The first volunteers begin to arrive at Valcartier camp.
1914 6 August Britain accepts Canada's offer of troops.
1914 5 August Britain declares war. Canada is automatically at war.
1914 2 August Canada offers Britain troops for overseas service.
1914 21 December Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry arrives in France. The first Canadian unit committed to battle in the Great War.
1915 13 October Actions of the Hohenzollern Redoubt
1915     Elizabeth Smellie is appointed colonel in the Canadian Army nursing corps. She was the first Canadian women to hold this position.
1915 14 March Action of St. Eloi
1915 9 May Battle of Aubers Ridge
1915 25 September Action of Bois Grenier (part of the Battle of Loos)
1915 25 September-October The Battle of Loos
1915 15 June Second Action of Givenchy
1915 24 May Bellewaerde Ridge. Part of 2nd Ypres.
1915 17 May Battle of Festubert
1915 8 May Frezenberg Ridge. Part of 2nd Ypres.
1915 7 May Lusitania is sunk by a German submarine; casualties include 124 Americans passengers.
1915 24 April Battle of St.Julien. First use of poison gas against Canadian troops.
1915 22 April Gravenstafel Ridge - Poison Gas is first used on the Western Front, in a German attack on French and Canadian troops on the Ypres Salient. Part of 2nd Ypres.
1915 10 March Battle of Neuve Chapelle
1915 16 February the 1st Canadian Division arrives in France
1915 31 January First use of poison gas in WW1, by Germany at Bolimow in Poland on the Eastern Front
1915 19 January First German Zeppelin raid on British mainland.
1915 22 April Battle of Ypres starts in Belgium. It’s the first major battle fought by Canadian troops. They stand their ground against poison-gas attack.
1915 22 April Canadian troops in the Second Battle of Ypres hold against history's first major gas attack.
1915 24 April-May St. Julien. Part of 2nd Ypres.
1915 18 May Battle of Festubert.
1915 20 December Newfoundland Regiment evacuated from Suvla Bay
1915     National Transcontinental, the eastern division of the Grand Trunk Railway, consolidates a line from Moncton to Winnipeg.
1915 16 November Canadian's launched their first trench raid at Riviere Douve.
1915 19 September Newfoundland Regiment lands at Suvla Bay in Gallipoli.
1915 25 December 3rd Canadian Division formed.
1915 25 May Second Canadian Division formed in Canada.
1915 22 April Battle of Ypres. First use of poison gas against French.
1915 1 April 1st Canadian Division is moved north to the Ypres Salient.
1915 3 March 1st Canadian Division is made responsible for 6000m of front near Fleurbaix.
1915 7 February 1st Canadian Division begins moving to France.
1915 22 April In their first battle, the 1st Canadian Division face one of the first recorded chlorine gas attacks at Ypres, Belgium.
1915 5 May Lt-Col John McCrae of the Canadian Expeditionary Force composed the well-known poem In Flanders Fields.
1915     John McCrae writes "In Flanders' Fields."
1915 15 June Battle of Givenchy.
1916 20 July Attacks on High Wood
1916 29 July A devastating forest fire broke out in northwest of North Bay, Ontario, killing between 200 and 250 men, women, and children and destroying six towns, including Matheson and Cochrane. Property damage was estimated at more than $2 million.
1916 3 February The Centre Block of Parliament Hill burned to ground. MPs and Senators had to conducted the nation's business in a museum not far from the Hill doing their work in the former hall of invertebrate fossils.
1916 2 June Battle of Mount Sorrel
1916 1 July Albert (Capture of Montauban, Mametz, Fricourt, Contalmaison and la Boisselle)
1916 27 March-April Action of St Eloi Craters
1916 19 July Attack at Fromelles
1916 3 September Guillemont
1916 15 September Flers-Courcelette
1916 26 September Thiepval Ridge
1916 1 October Le Transloy Ridges (Capture of Eaucourt l'Abbaye)
1916 1 October-November Ancre Heights (Capture of Regina Trench)
1916 15 November The Ancre (Capture of Beaumont Hamel)
1916 1 September Pozieres Ridge (Fighting for Mouquet Farm)
1916 14 July Bazentin Ridge
1916 3 Feb The Parliament buildings are destroyed by fire.
1916     The 1st Canadian Division discovers that the Canadian-made Ross rifle (controversial since 1905) is unreliable in combat conditions. It is withdrawn from service and replaced by the British-made Lee- Enfield (Aug.).
1916     The National Research Council is established to promote scientific and industrial research.
1916     Female suffrage is first granted in Canada in Manitoba.
1916   November Sir Samuel Hughes Minister of Militia and Defense is sacked by Prime Minister Borden.
1916 26 September Battle of Thiepval Ridge.
1916 15 September Battle of Courcelette. First use of the tank and the rolling barrage.
1916 9 September Ginchy
1916 6 April The Battle of St.Eloi Craters.
1916 2 June Battle of Mount Sorrel. Major General Mercer killed.
1917 26 October-November Second Passenchdaele
1917 9 April The Battle of Vimy Ridge.
1917 15 December Russia and Germany sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk, effectively ending the two-front war and allowing Germany to concentrate troops on the Western Front
1917 20 November Battle of Cambrai - Tank attacks
1917 29 August Conscription became law in Canada.
1917     The Migratory Birds Convention Act is enacted, implementing the Treaty for International Protection of Migratory Birds which was signed by Canada and U.S.A. in 1916. It was the first international treaty for the conservation wildlife.
1917 9 October Poelcappelle
1917 26 September-October Polygon Wood
1917 23 November Battle of Cambrai - Capture of Bourlon Wood
1917 9 April Battle of Vimy Ridge
1917     A Union Government (a coalition of Liberals and Tories) under Borden wins in a federal election, in which all women of British origin are allowed to vote for the first time.
1917 6 December The Halifax Explosion. French munitions vessel Mont Blanc explodes in Halifax Harbour killing almost 1600 people.
1917 3 May Third Scarpe (Capture of Fresnoy)
1917 28 April Arleux
1917 23 April Attack on la Coulotte
1917 15 August Battle for Hill 70. First use of mustard gas against Canadians.
1917 1 April First Scarpe
1917 11 June Prime Minister Sir Robert Borden introduced a Military Service Bill.
1917 6 April The US declares war on Germany.
1917 24 March German retreat to the Hindenburg Line
1917 20 November The Battle of Cambrai.
1917   November Prime Minister Borden's Unionists win a majority in the federal election.
1917 4 October Broodseinde
1917 26 October The Battle of Passchendaele
1917 23 April Second Scarpe
1917 7 June Battle of Messines (Capture of Wytschaete)
1917 9 April Canadians capture Vimy Ridge, France (Apr. 9-12) and
1917 6 Nov Passchendaele, Belgium, in one of the war's worst battles.
1917 6 Dec The explosion of a munitions ship in Halifax harbour wipes out two square miles of Halifax, killing almost 2000 and injuring 9000.
1917     In Alberta, Louise McKinney becomes the first woman elected to a legislature in the British Commonwealth.
1917     Heavy Canadian lost and a sharp decline in voluntary enlistment during the World War led Ottawa to introduce compulsory military service, French-Canadian opposition and English-Canadian support sparked a bitter linguistic and national unity crisis.
1917     Louise McKinney is the first woman in Canada to be elected to a provincial legislature when she won a seat in Alberta.
1917 3 June Affairs south of the Souchez River
1917 12 October First Passchendaele
1917 26 June Capture of Avoin
1917 23 Feb Borden sits as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet, giving Canada a voice in international war policy.
1917 31 July-August Pilckem Ridge
1917 26 November The National Hockey League is established in Montreal. The original teams are: Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, and Toronto Arenas.
1917 11 June The military service bill is introduced, leading to a conscription crisis dividing French and English Canada.
1917 9 April Battle of Vimy Ridge begins in France. A Canadian victory at the cost of more than 10 000 killed or wounded.
1917 9 April Canadians capture Vimy Ridge.
1917     Sir William Borden leads a unionist coalition, which combines support by Conservatives and western Liberals, into a wartime election against the Laurier Liberals. Borden wins.
1917     The first Federal Income Tax is introduced. The Income Tax Act was presented as a "temporary" measure to help finance World War I, but, unsurprisingly, proved too good for the government to give up, even though the war ended in November 11, 1918.
1917 6 December A French munitions ship explodes in Halifax harbor, flattening the city, killing 1 600, and injuring 9 000.
1917 26 May First US troops arrive in France.
1917 15 August Battle of Hill 70
1917     Income tax is introduced as a temporary wartime measure.
1917     Flying ace Billy Bishop of Owen Sound, Ontario, wins the Victoria Cross for attacking a German airfield single-handed.
1917 16 August Langemarck
1917 20 September Menin Road Ridge
1917 6 December Halifax explosion kills nearly 2,000 persons.
1917 26 October Battle of Passchendaele starts also in Belgium. A Canadian victory at the cost of more than 15 000 casualties. Nine Victoria Crosses are awarded to Canadians.
1917 8 June General Sir Arthur Currie appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Canadian Corps. Currie became the first Canadian to hold overall command of Canadian troops. He was appointed over other British Generals who had higher rank/more seniority. Currie had his detractors but was the greatest Canadian General and to some the greatest military leader of all time.
1918 24 March First Bapaume
1918 26 March Rosieres
1918 30 March Moreuil Wood
1918 30 March Canadian Cavalry attack at Moreuil Wood.
1918 28 March First Arras
1918 24 March Actions at the Somme Crossings
1918 21 March St. Quentin
1918 28 May US forces make their first offensive
1918 8 August Canadians break through the German trenches at Amiens, France, beginning "Canada's Hundred Days."
1918 11 November Armistice ends the war.
1918     Imprisoned in South Dakota for pacificism, Hutterites flee northward into the Prairie provinces.
1918     Women win the right to vote in federal elections.
1918     Between 1918 and 1925 the Spanish Influenza affected all regions, killing more than 50 000 Canadians.
1918 18 March Daylight Saving Time is first used in Canada.
1918 3 October Beaurevoir Line
1918 8 August Battle of Amiens (code named "Llandovery Castle"). On 8 August, 'the Black Day of the German Army' - Canadian and Australian troops, plus 600 tanks, shatter German forces and reach Hindenburg line.
1918 11 November At 10:58am Private George Price of the 28th Battalion is killed by a sniper. Two minutes later at 11:00am the armistice came into effect. The war was over.
1918 21 August Albert (1st Pioneer Battalion on detached duty)
1918 26 August The Battle of the Scarpe.
1918 31 August-September Second Bapaume
1918 26 August-September 2nd Battle of Arras
1918 26 August Scarpe (Capture of Monchy-le-Preux). Part of the 2nd Battle of Arras.
1918 2 September Drocourt-Queant Canal
1918 12 September Havrincourt
1918 18 September Epehy
1918 4 July Capture of Hamel
1918 29 September-October St. Quentin Canal
1918 15 August Actions around Damery
1918 8 October Cambrai (Capture of Cambrai)
1918 28 September-October Battle of Ypres
1918 9 October Pursuit to the Selle
1918 14 October Battle of Courtrai
1918 17 October Battle of the Selle
1918 1 November Battle of Valenciennes (Capture of Mont Houy)
1918 4 November Battle of the Sambre
1918 5 November Passage of the Grande Honnelle
1918 9 November Capture of Mons
1918 11 November Armistice
1918 27 September-October Canal du Nord (Capture of Bourlon Wood)
1918 12 April Hazebrouck. Part of the battle of the Lys.
1918 10 November The Canadian Corps Reached the outskirts of Mons.
1918 2 November The Canadian Corps capture the town of Valenciennes in its last major battle of the war.
1918 27 September The Battle of the Canal Du Nord and Cambrai.
1918 2 September The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line.
1918 8 August The Battle of Amiens. The beginning of what is known as Canada's Hundred Days.
1918 21 March German Offensive begins.
1918   January Conscription now in force.
1918 4 April Avre
1918 10 April Messines (Loss of Hill 63). Part of the battle of the Lys.
1918 28 June Action of La Becque
1918 13 April Bailleul (Defence of Neuve Eglise). Part of the battle of the Lys.
1918 17 April First Kemmel Ridge . Part of the battle of the Lys.
1918 27 June Canadian Hospital ship Llandovery Castle sunk by German U-Boat. Life boats were pursued and sunk. 234 were killed, including 14 nursing sisters. 24 survived. This attack proved a rallying cry for the Canadian troops for the rest of the war.
1918 29 March Anti-conscription riots break out in Quebec City.
1918 11 November Armistice declared, one day after the capture of Mons has climaxed " Canada's Hundred Days" of unbroken advanced.
1918 9 April Estaires (First Defence of Givenchy, 1918). Part of the battle of the Lys.
1918 8 May US forces make their first offensive
1919 28 June End of the war/Treaty of Versailles
1919 4 March Kinmel Park Mutiny. Canadian troops mutiny because of delays in returning to Canada.
1919 15 May The Winnipeg General Strike. A strike in the building and metal trades spreads to other unions, and 30 000 workers stop, crippling the city until June, 25, of the same year.
1919 21 June Mounties smash 37 day old Winnipeg General Strike.
1919     The federal government passes a Technical Education act.
1919     Grand Trunk Pacific, the western division of the Grand Trunk Railway, consolidates a line from Winnipeg to Prince Rupert.
1919     The Canadian National Railways is created as a crown corporation to acquire and further consolidate these smaller lines.
1919 14 June The first successful transatlantic flight leaves St. John's, Nfld.
1919 1 June This day is called Bloody Saturday when policy charged a demonstration of strikers during the Winnipeg General Strike, killing two and wounding twenty seven others.
1919     James Shaver Woodsworth and others were charged with seditious conspiracy.
1919   August Following the death of Laurier, William Lyon Mackenzie is chosen to be leader of the Liberal Party.
1919 21 June An armed charge by the RCMP on Bloody Saturday kills one and injures thirty.
1919     Beginning in the metals and buildings trades as a call for union recognition, a general strike expands until it paralyzes Winnipeg (May 19-June 26).
1920     Canada's director of military operations drafted a plan for the Canadian army to invade certain cities in the U.S. Fortunately, no one took the plan seriously.
1920     The Progressive Party is formed by T. A. Crerar to obtain law tariffs for western farmers.
1920     Canada joins the League of Nations at its inception.
1920     The Group of Seven artists hold their first exhibition in Toronto.
1920     The size of the cent is reduced from 25.4 mm to 19.05 mm.
1921     Woodsworth becomes the first socialist elected to the House of Commons.
1921     Mackenzie King and the Liberals win federal election.
1921     Agnes Macphail of Owen Sound, Ontario, becomes the first woman elected to the House of Commons, in the first election since women gained the vote.
1921 26 March The Bluenose is launched at Lunenburg, N.S..
1921     Agnes Macphail becomes the first woman elected to Parliament, then representing the Progressive Party (which came in second and held the balance of power despite refusals to form an official opposition).
1921     Agnes Campbell Macphail is the first woman in Canada to be elected to the House of Commons winning the Ontario riding of Grey South East. It was also the first election in which women had the right to vote.
1921     Colonial Motors of Walkerville, Ontario manufactures an automobile called the Canadian.
1922   August Omar Roberts poured gasoline on Elora Gray and set fire to her and his house in Kemptville, Nova Scotia, because she had turned down his marriage proposal and was in love with another man. Police found Gray before she died, however, and she was able the tell them what Roberts had done. He was found guilty of murder and hanged in November of the same year.
1922     Andrew Bonar Law of New Brunswick became leader of the Conservatives in England and then prime minister, post that he held for 209 days before resigning because of bad health. He moved to England in 1900 and became a MP.
1922     Banting, Best, MacLeod, and Collip share the Nobel Prize for the discovery of insulin.
1922     The mint replaces the small, inconvenient silver five-cent piece with one made out of nickel, quickly becoming known as "nickles", expression used even today.
1922     Of the other provinces, only Newfoundland has not yet given women the vote.
1922     A Provincial Franchise Committee is organized in Québec to work towards female suffrage in the province.
1922     Foster Hewitt makes the first hockey broadcast.
1922     Canada's reveals a growing independence by not going to Britain's aid in the Chanak crisis in Turkey.
1922     The Canadian Northern and Canadian Transcontinental Railways merge to form the Canadian National Railways.
1923     A feeling of independence continues to grow. Canada signs the Halibut Treaty with the U.S. without the traditional British signature.
1923     The Nobel Prize for Medicine is awarded to doctors Frederick Banting and J.J.R. Macleod. Along with Dr. Charles and others, Banting discovered the insulin as a treatment for diabetes.
1923   August The Home Bank goes bankrupted with losses to depositors as well as shareholders. The failure led to the creation of the federal office of the Inspector General of Banks.
1923     Always heavily subsidized, the Grand Trunk Railway is finally taken over by the government.
1923     The federal government more or less forbids Chinese immigration on Dominion Day, soon to be called "Humiliation Day" by Chinese-Canadians.
1923     Mackenzie King leads the opposition to a common imperial policy at the Imperial Conference in London.
1925     Newfoundland women receive the right to vote.
1926     Armand Bombardier, of Valcourt, Quebec, developed the snowmobile, vehicles were in difficult terrain. In 1950 he pioneered the development of small, light snow vehicles for winter sports.
1926 18 November The Balfour Report defines British dominions as autonomous and equal in status.
1927 1 March Britain's Privy Council awards Labrador to Newfoundland instead of Québec.
1927 1 July To celebrate Canada's Diamond jubilee (sixtieth birthday) the first coast-to-coast radio broadcast is made.
1927     The first coast-to-coast radio network broadcast celebrates the Diamond Jubilee of Confederation.
1927     The first government old-age pension pays up to $20 per month.
1928     At the first Olympics in which women may compete, a Canadian women's six-member track team wins bronze, two silver, and two gold medals.
1928     The Supreme Court of Canada rules that the BNA Act does not define women as "persons" and are therefore not eligible to hold public office.
1929     England's Privy Council rules that women are indeed "person", and therefore can be appointed to the Canadian Senate. The next year, Cairine Wilson becomes Canada's first woman senator.
1929 29 October North American stock markets crash and the Great Depression begins.
1929 18 October The British Privy Council reverses the Supreme Court decision of 1928, and women are legally declared "persons".
1929     The Great Depression begins.
1929     The bush pilots Vic Horner and Wop May battled snowstorm and minus 40 degrees weather to fly anti-toxins to Fort Vermillion to stop a diphtheria epidemic that threatened to wipe out Métis and Native in the fort. They were apparently so frozen when they return that was necessary to lifted them form the cockpit.
1929     The Workers' Unity League is formed.
1930     R.B. Bennett leads the Conservative Party to victory over William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal as the country plunged into the Great Depression.
1930     Dr. Wilbur Franks, of Weston, Ontario, developed the G-suit, which allowed fighter pilots to carry out high-speed maneuvers without blacking out. Used by Allied pilots from 1942 onwards, it led to the development of modern day astronauts' suits.
1930     Cairine Reay Wilson is the first woman in Canada appointed to the Senate.
1930     The Conservatives under R.B. Bennett win federal election.
1930     Jean de Brébeuf and other Jesuit martyrs are officially canonized.
1930     Canada's first woman senator is Cairine Wilson.
1931 11 December The Statute of Westminster authorizes the Balfour Report (1926), granting Canada full legislative authority in both internal and external affairs.
1931     The Governor General becomes a representative of the Crown.
1931 11 December British parliament passes the Statute of Westminster, giving Canada final independence.
1932     Doukhobours add the burning of farm buildings to their protest techniques.
1932     Bennett's government establishes militaristic and repressive Relief Camps to cope with the problem of unemployed single men.
1932     Woodsworth plays a role in forming a democratic socialist political party, the Co-Operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF) in Calgary.
1932     The Ottawa Agreements provide for preferential trade between Canada and other Commonwealth nations.
1934     The birth of the Dionne quintuplets attracts international media attention.
1934     The Bank of Canada is formed.
1934     Bob Noorduyn built in Montreal the Norseman, the world's first bush plane which became the universal workhorse of the north. Nearly one thousand were produced and most are still in use today around the world.
1935 11 March The Bank of Canada is created with a mandate to be the sole issuer of Canadian bank notes. The first issue of bank notes was unilingual English or French, becoming bilingual in 1937.
1935     Inspired in part by the Workers' Unity League, about one thousand unemployed and disillusioned men from all over the western provinces begin a mass march, usually called the On-to-Ottawa trek, to confront Bennett over the Relief Camps (June 3-July 1).
1935     In an attempt to remove a corrupt Liberal administration, Maurice Duplessis, a Québec Conservative, allies with a splinter group of Liberals under Paul Gouin to form the Union nationale.
1935   March The Bank of Canada, as the country central bank, is founded.
1935   August William Aberhart is elected premier of Alberta on a Social Credit platform and begins issuing his own in the form of prosperity certificates which could be used as currency. The Supreme Court of Canada, however, disallowed the practice, ruling that banking and money fell under the control of federal government.
1936   November Joan Miller of Nelson, British Columbia, was the world's first woman professional television performer. She was the star of the first TV show, "Picture Page Girl", produced by the BBC. She was paid 12.10 pounds per week.
1936     Mary Teresa Sullivan becomes Canada's first female municipal councilor when she was sworn in as a member of Halifax city.
1936     Driven by the reformist Union nationale, Duplessis manages to oust Gouin and becomes Premier of Québec.
1936 5-17 July Seven hundred and eighty Canadians died when temperatures exceeded 42 degrees Celsius from Alberta to Ontario, in Canada's longest and deadliest heat wave.
1936 2 November The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation is established.
1937     The Rowell-Sirois Commission is appointed to investigate the financial relationship between the federal government and the provinces.
1937 1 September Trans Canada Air Lines begins regular flights.
1938     Meeting Mackenzie King in Kingston, Franklin D. Roosevelt is the first U.S. president to make an official visit to Canada.
1938 19 June The Workers' Unity League helps to organize the Vancouver Sit-ins in which Relief Camp workers and others occupied the Vancouver Post Office and some other public buildings. The protest was peaceful until the police extracted the men by force on Bloody Sunday, when 35 people were wounded.
1938     Thomas Carroll built the first experimental model of the self-propelled farm combine in a Massey-Harris factory in Toronto. The machine revolutionized wheat farming in Canada by saving time, money, and backbreaking work.
1939 1 April Trans-Canada Airlines (later Air Canada) makes the first scheduled passenger flight from Vancouver to Montreal.
1939     The Second World War starts. After Germany invades Poland and Britain declares war, Canada declares war as well.
1939 10 September Canada declares war on Germany after approval by the Canadian parliament.
1939 10 September Canada declares war on Germany after remaining neutral for a week following the British declaration. Premier Duplessis opposes war.
1940     Idola Saint-Jean and other early feminists finally succeed in obtaining the vote for Québecois women.
1940     The Unemployment Insurance Commission is introduced. Canada and the U.S. form a Permanent Joint Defense Board.
1940     Despite provincial disagreement, some of the financial recommendations of the Rowell-Sirois commission -- especially those relating to a minimum national standard of services -- are implicitly and unilaterally adopted by Ottawa.
1940     Parliament passes the controversial National Resources Mobilization Act (June), which allows conscription for military service only within Canada.
1941   July The first national unemployment-insurance program comes into operation.
1941     Hong Kong falls to the Japanese and Canadians are taken as POW's. The U.S. enters the war due to Japanese aggression. Together, the incidents lead to racial intolerance in Canada.
1941 7 December The Japanese attack the U.S. Naval base at Pearl Harbor, in Hawaii, and Canada declares war on Japan.
1941   December The Fall of Hong Kong. More than 500 Canadians die in battle or of starvation and ill-treatment in Japanese prison camps.
1942     From May to October, German submarines in the Gulf of St. Lawrence sink twenty-three Allied ships, with a loss of 258 lives. The gulf is then closed to ocean shipping until 1944.
1942 26 February About 22000 Canadians of Japanese descent are stripped of non- portable possessions, interned and evacuated as security risks.
1942 27 April A national plebiscite approves amendment of the National Resources Mobilization Act to permit sending conscripts overseas, once again revealing deep divisions between Québec and English Canada.
1942 19 August The Dieppe raid, Canada's first participation in the European theatre, is a disaster.
1942 11 October RCMP ship St. Roch reaches Halifax after becoming the second ship ever (and the first going west to east) to sail the Northwest Passage.
1942 19 August Dieppe raid leaves 907 Canadians dead. 1, 946 capture.
1942 19 August In a disastrous raid on Dieppe, France, 900 out of 5 000 Canadians are killed and almost 2 000 are taken prisoner.
1942     Polymer Corporation Limited is formed because western nations were cut off from all sources of natural rubber during the World War II. It took fourteen month to build a $50 million plant which became the forerunner of many large-scale petrochemical plants and refineries.
1942     Twenty two thousand Japanese Canadians are rounded up by RCMP and placed in work camps until after the war.
1943   July Canadian troops invade Sicily and, with other Allied troops, fight their way north through Italy. They reach Rome on June 4, 1944.
1943 10 July Canadians participate in the invasion of Sicily
1943 20 December Canadians win the Battle of Ortona, a German stronghold on the Adriatic.
1944 6 June Canadians troops, along with British and Americans, land successfully on the coast of France and begin to drive the Germans back.
1944     The CCF under Tommy Douglas wins the provincial election in Saskatchewan, forming the first socialist government in North America.
1944   August The Family Allowance Act is passed.
1944 6 June Canadian troops push further than other allied units on D-Day.
1944 23 July Canadian forces fight as a separate army.
1945 5 May European hostilities end.
1945 20 June The first family allowance ("baby-bonus") payments are made.
1945 26 June Canada joins the United Nations.
1945 2 September Hostilities in the Pacific basin end.
1945 5 September Igor Gouzenko defects from the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa and reveals the existence in Canada of a Soviet spy network.
1945     Canada's first nuclear reactor goes on line in Chalk River, Ontario.
1945 5 September The first Canadian nuclear reactor goes into operation.
1945     Family-allowance payment begin. All families receive a monthly sum for each child under sixteen who is in school.
1946     Canada's largest on-land earthquake shakes Central Vancouver Island measuring 7.3 on the Richter Scale and causing extensive property damage. Seventy percent of the chimneys were knocked down in Courtenay, Cumberland, and Union Bay. One person was drowned and one died of heart attack. The quake was felt from Oregon to Alaska and east to the Rocky Mountains.
1947 3 February Canada's record cold temperature is set in Snag, Yukon Territory, when the mercury plunged to -63 degrees Celcius, solidifying Canadian reputation as one of the coldest country in the world.
1947   February Prospectors strike oil in Leduc, Alberta, beginning Alberta's oil boom.
1948     Canadians Suzanne Morrow and Wally Distelmeyer perform for the first time the Death Spiral in an international skating competition. It’s a circular move in which the man lowers his partner to the ice and swings her in circle while she is arched backward gliding on one foot with the head almost touching the ice.
1948 15 November Louis St. Laurent succeeds Mackenzie as prime minister.
1948 30 June The Income Tax Act is enacted, taking effect for the 1949 and subsequent taxation years. After numerous amendments to the Income War Tax Act introduced in 1917, the new act largely reworded and codified the former law with little change in actual policy.
1949 31 March Newfoundland and Labrador join Confederation as the tenth province.
1949     William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canada's longest-serving prime minister, retires at the age if 74.
1949     Canada's Supreme Court replaces Britain's judicial committee as the final court of appeal.
1949 31 March Province and territories joined Confederation, or were created from existing parts of Canada: Newfoundland
1949 31 March Joey Smallwood brings Newfoundland into Confederation.
1949     Canada joins NATO.
1949     Canada's biggest earthquake in the 20 century hits Queen Charlotte Island, in British Columbia, with a magnitude of 8.1 on the Richter Scale. The shaking was so severe that cows were knocked off their feet and people could not stand. The value of the damage, however, was not high because of the sparse population on the island. It was also felt over a wide area in western North America.
1950     Harold Adams Innes publishes Empire and Communications, a book that deals with the role of communications in various societies throughout history. Innes shows the connection between communications technology and the ability of different empires to survive and prosper.
1950     The construction of Trans-Canada Highway starts, to be completed in 1970. The 7 821 kilometer road cost more than one billion, linked the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, and its ranked as one of Canada's most important transportation projects
1950     Heart pacemaker was invented in a National Research Council laboratory in Ottawa by Winnipeg native John Hops to keep weak of heart alive and kicking.
1950     Volunteers in the Canadian Army Special Force join the United Nations forces in the Korean war.
1950     Inuit win the right to vote in federal elections.
1950     The Korean War starts. Twenty-seven thousand Canadians serve and more than 1 600 are killed or wounded.
1950     Park Royal Shopping Centre opens in West Vancouver, British Columbia, as the first suburban shopping mall in Canada. Today the mall has both a north side, the original, and the south side, which construction started in 1960s.
1951     Census shows population as just over 14 million.
1951     The Massey Royal Commission reports that Canadian cultural life is dominated by American influences. Recommendations include improving grants to universities and the eventual establishment of the Canada Council (1957).
1951     Charlotte Whitton becomes mayor of Ottawa, the first woman in Canada elected for this post.
1952     The outbreak of the Foot and Mouth Disease in Saskatchewan results in the slaughter of thousands of animals but also sets the stage for very rigorous regulations regarding the health of domestic livestock. Today Canada's herd health programs are recognized around the world as being the most stringent anywhere.
1952   September Canada's first television stations begin part-time broadcasts in Montréal and Toronto.
1952     Vincent Massey becomes the first native-born Governor General.
1952 6 September The first Canadian scheduled TV broadcast.
1952     Former prime minister Lester B. Pearson is elected president of the United Nations General Assembly.
1952     Vincent Massey becomes the first Canadian-born governor general since Pierre Regaud de Vaudreuil governed New France.
1953 27 July The Korean War ends.
1953     Paule-Emile Leger, archbishop of Montreal, is appointed cardinal by the Vatican. Leger served as a missionary among lepers and handicapped children in Cameroon, Africa. He also was involved in many humanitarian activities and was recipient of the Pearson Peace Medal.
1953 13 July The Stratford Festival opens.
1953 1 January The National Library is established in Ottawa.
1954 30 March The first Canadian subway opens in Toronto.
1954 9 September Marilyn Bell, age sixteen, is the first person to swim Lake Ontario.
1954 15 October Hurricane Hazel touches down in Toronto with 178 millimeters of rain. Eighty-three people died, entire streets in west Toronto ware destroyed and many bridges were washed away in the worst inland storm in Canada.
1954 15 October Hurricane Hazel kills almost seven dozen people in Toronto.
1954     The Yonge Street subway opens in Toronto, the first underground public transit system in Canada.
1954     Banks in Canada are authorized to make residential mortgage loans for the first time and also take "chattel mortgages", which led banks to offer automobile financing.
1954 9 September Marilyn Bell is the first person to swim across Lake Ontario.
1954     Viewers of the British Empire games in Vancouver see two runners break the four minute mile in the same race.
1954     The post-war boom is briefly interrupted by an economic slump.
1955 17 March Riots in Montréal are caused by the suspension of hockey star Rocket Richard.
1955     The Canadian Labour Congress is formed.
1956 1 November United Nations General Assembly adopts Lester B. Pearson's Suez peace-keeping plan.
1956     The Liberals use closure to limit the Pipeline Debate -- which begins with concern over the funding of the natural gas industry and ends in contoversy over proper parliamentary procedure (May 8- June 6). The action contributes directly to their electoral defeat (after twenty two years in power) the following year.
1957     John George Diefenbaker leads the Conservative Party to decisive victory over Louis St. Laurent's Liberals in a federal election, winning more seats in the House of Commons than any party has before.
1957     Ellen Fairclough becomes the first female federal cabinet minister.
1957     Lester Pearson wins the Nobel Prize for proposing a United Nations peacekeeping force to prevent war over control of the Suez Canal.
1957 10 June John Diefenbaker and the Conservatives win a minority government.
1957     The Canada Council is formed to foster Canadian cultural uniqueness.
1957 12 October Lester B. Pearson wins the Nobel Peace Prize for helping resolve the Suez Crisis.
1957     Registered Retirement Saving Plan is introduced allowing Canadians who were either self-employed or did not belong to a benefit plan could put aside money for their retirement on a tax-deferred basis. Today, the RRSP is a multi-billion dollar industry and considered one of the few tax breaks available for ordinary Canadians.
1957   October The newspaper Montreal Herald stopped publication after 146 years of circulation.
1958 10 October The last weld is completed on the TransCanada Pipeline, a 2 290 kilometer, $375 million gas line that took twenty-eight months to build and ran from Burstall, Saskatchewan, to Kapuskasing, Ontario. Capable of delivering more than nine billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, the project is compared to the building of the transcontinental railway in the 19th century.
1958 31 March Diefenbaker's minority becomes the largest majority ever obtained in a federal election.
1958     A coal mine disaster at Springhill, N.S. kills 74 miners.
1958 23 October The Springhill Mining Disaster. Shifting rock kills seventy-four coal miner. Some of the survivors are trapped for eight days before being rescued.
1959 26 June The St. Lawrence Seaway opens.
1959 26 June Queen Elizabeth II and U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower officially open the St. Lawrence Seaway, which lets ocean vessels reach the Great Lakes.
1959 20 February Diefenbaker cancels the Avro Arrow project (CF-105 aircraft) to public outcry. Almost 14000 jobs are lost.
1960     A Canadian Bill of Rights is approved.
1960     Social changes and a new government in Quebec lead to the beginning of Quebec's "Quiet Revolution". Stirring of interest in independence for Quebec soon follow.
1960     Native people living on reserves get the right to vote in federal elections.
1960     Native people win the right to vote in federal elections.
1960 22 June Liberals under Jean Lesage win provincial election in Québec, inaugurating the Quiet Revolution which pressed for special status within Confederation.
1960 4 March A shower of more than five hundred stony mereorites, some as small as as peas, fells from the sky in Bruderheim, Alberta. It was the biggest Canadian mereorite fall, with more than three hundred kilograms recovered from the field.
1961     The Canadian Medical Association concluded that cigarette smoking causes lung cancer.
1961     The New Democratic Party replaces the CCF.
1962     Saskatchewan is the first province to have medical insurance covering doctor's bills. In 1966, Parliament passes a legislation to establish a national Medicare program. By 1972, all provinces and territories have joined the program.
1962 3 September The Trans- Canada Highway opens.
1962 29 September Canada becomes the third nation in space with the launch of the satellite Alouette I.
1962 11 December Canada's last executions take place in Toronto.
1962 1 July Socialized medicine is introduced in Saskatchewan, leading to a doctors' strike.
1962 29 September Canada launches the Alouette I satellite to study the ionosphere, becoming the third country in space after Russia and United States.
1962 18 June The Conservatives are returned to minority status in a federal election.
1962     Blanche Margaret Meagher is appointed ambassador to Austria, being the first in Canada to hold this position. While in Vienna she also became Canada's representative at the International Atomic Energy Agency.
1963     The FLQ, a terrorist group dedicated to revolution to establish an independent Quebec, explodes bombs in Montreal.
1964     Marshall McLuhan publishes the book Understanding the Media which helped Canada and the world to understand the changes technology and communications were bringing to society.
1964   April Canadians get social insurance cards
1964     Northern Dancer is the first Canadian horse to win the Kentucky Derby.
1965 9 November The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario inadvertently causes a major power blackout in North America.
1965 7 March Roman Catholic churches begin to celebrate masses in English.
1965   January Canada and the U.S. sign the Auto Pact
1965 15 February Canada gets a new red-and-white, maple leaf flag.
1965 15 February The new flag is inaugurated
1966     Canada Pension Plan (or CPP) is created, requiring contributions from both employers and employees for a publicly financed retirement saving plan. Lately the CPP has been mired in controversy about its solvency, resulting in steep increase inn the premiums paid by employers and employees.
1966 4 March The Munsinger affair (in which the Associate Minister of National Defence, Pierre Sévigny, had a liaison with a German divorcée suspected by the RCMP) becomes Canada's first political sex scandal.
1966     The Canada Pension Plan is established.
1966 1 October The CBC introduces some colour broadcasts.
1967 1 July Centennial celebrations officially begin.
1967 24 July French president Charles de Gaulle says "Vive le Québec libre" in Montréal.
1967 27 April World attention is turned to Expo '67 in Montréal.
1967 25 April The air force, army, and navy are unified as the Canadian Armed Forces.
1967   April Expo 67, the Montreal world's fair, attracts more than 55 million visitors from April to October.
1967     Canada celebrates a hundred years of Confederation. Across the country, communities sponsor centennial projects. In Ottawa, on July 1, Queen Elizabeth II cuts a giant birthday cake.
1967   December Federal legislation abolishes the death penalty for murder, except when police officers or prison guards are the victims.
1968     A Royal Commission on the Status of Women is appointed.
1968 25 June Pierre Trudeau succeeds Pearson as leader of the Liberals and wins a majority in a federal election in an atmosphere like a media circus.
1968     Canadian divorce laws are reformed.
1968     Pierre Elliott Trudeau succeeds Lester Pearson as prime minister and leader of the Liberal Party. "Trudeaumania" sweeps the country in the subsequent federal election.
1968     Rene Levesque founds the Parti Quebecois, with the goal of making Quebec a "sovereign" (independent) state "associated" with Canada.
1968     The rising price of silver forces the mint to replace the 10, 25, and 50 cent pieces and the dollar coin with one made of nickel.
1969   May Abortion laws are liberalized.
1969 1 February Postal reforms end Saturday deliveries.
1969 9 July English and French are both recognized as offical languages by the federal government.
1969 20 July U.S spacecraft Apollo II lands on the moon with Canadian-built landing gear.
1969 4 March The Royal Canadian Mounted Police replaced the dog teams by snowmobiles to patrol and search.
1969 1 December The breathalizer is put into use to test for drunken drivers.
1970 5 October British trade commissioner James Cross is kidnapped by the FLQ, precipitating the October Crisis.
1970 10 October Québec's labour and immigration minister Pierre Laporte is kidnapped and later found murdered.
1970 17 October The strangled body of Pierre Laporte, a Quebec cabinet minister, was found in the trunk of a car in St. Hubert, Quebec, during the FLQ crisis. Paul and Jacques Rose, Francis Simard, and Bernard Lortie were charged in 1971 with kidnapping and non-capital murder, and later all were convicted and sentenced to prison terms ranging from eight years to double life.
1970     Greame Ferguson, Robert Kerr, Roman Kroitor, Bill Shaw, and Bill Breukelman developed the IMAX System, a giant-screen, large-format film medium, which uses the largest film frame in movie history and multi-track sound system. The first permanent Imax Theatre was built at Toronto's Ontario Place in 1971. Today there are Imax theatres all over the world.
1970     The October Crisis. After the FLQ kidnaps a Quebec government minister and a British trade commissioner, Prime Minister Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act, which allows Canadians to be arrested and held without being charged.
1970     Voting age lowered from twenty-one to eighteen.
1970     The greatest change ever in crop planting came with the introduction of canola, a plant able to produce a more desirable oil for the food trade. Canola became a dominant crop on the Canadian prairies, causing the greatest change ever in crop planting.
1970 16 October The War Measures Act is invoked, banning the FLQ and leading eventually to nearly 500 arrests.
1971     Gerhard Herzberg of the National Research Council wins the Nobel Prize in chemistry for studies of smog.
1971     The federal government officially adopts a policy of multiculturalism.
1971 5 March Fifty-two-year-old bachelor prime minister Pierre Trudeau married twenty-two-year-old Margaret Sinclair, the daughter of a former Liberal cabinet minister. From then, though the birth of their three sons, to the couple's divorce in 1984, the world watched as the antics of Pierre and Margaret charmed and same times embarrassed Canadians.
1971     Gerhard Hertzberg of Ottawa wins the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
1971     The Tobacco companies announced that effective in 1972 they would voluntarily place a warning on cigarette packages and would no advertise cigarettes on radio or television.
1972     Canada wins the first hockey challenge against the Soviets.
1972 28 September Few Canadian have been credited with deeds as momentous as the goal Paul Henderson scored for Team Canada The converted rebound, with thirty-four seconds remaining in the final game of the first ever Canada-Russia series, turned back a relentless Soviet Union advance in the climactic eight mach and gave Canada a victory that may never be forgotten.
1972     Rosemary Brown is the first black woman elected to the provincial legislature in British Columbia.
1972     Anik 1 Geo-stationary Commercial Satellite is launched by Telesat, making Canada the first country in the world to use satellites for domestic communications.
1972     Trudeau's Liberals win a minority government by only two seats.
1973     The separatist Parti Québecois becomes the official opposition in a provincial election.
1973 13 November Henry Morgentaler is acquitted of illegal abortion charges in Montréal.
1973 5 January The House of Commons criticizes U.S. bombing of North Vietnam.
1974 8 July Trudeau's Liberals win a majority government.
1974 4 March The Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario changes its name to Ontario Hydro and begins to update its image.
1974 29 June Mikhail Baryshnikov defects in Montréal.
1975 2 April Toronto's CN Tower becomes the world's tallest free-standing structure.
1975 14 October Trudeau institutes wage and price controls to fight inflation.
1975     TV cameras are allowed in the House of Commons for the first time.
1975 18 July The Foreign Investment Review Agency intends to screen foreign investment in Canada.
1976     Rene Levesque and Parti Quebecois are elected in Quebec.
1976     The Eaton Company discontinues catalogue sales after 92 continuous years.
1976 15 November René Lévesque and the Parti Québecois win a provincial election.
1976 15 September Team Canada wins the first Canada Cup.
1976 17 July The Olympic games are held in Montréal under tight security.
1976 14 July The death penalty is abolished.
1976 4 June Canada announces a 200-mile coastal fishing zone.
1976 14 October Organized by the Canadian Labor Congress to oppose wage controls, the Day of Protest was the Canada's first national general strike and saw more than one million workers leaving their jobs for a day.
1976     Wayne Gretzky, age seventeen, plays hockey for the Oilers; he is the youngest person in North America playing a major-league sport.
1977 6 September Highway signs are changed to the metric system.
1977 26 August Québec passes Bill 101, restricting English schooling to children of parents who had been educated in English schools.
1978 24 January The remains of a Soviet nuclear-powered satellite crash in Canada's north.
1978     Sun Life Assurance acknowledges that it moved its head office to Toronto because of Montréal's language laws and political instability.
1978     Manufacturers of birth control pills are required to provide labels of health risks for smokers and women over forty.
1979 10 November Most of Mississauga, Ontario is evacuated to avoid derailed train cars containing chemicals.
1979 10 November The blue box recycling program is launched in Kitchener, Ontario. Since then, the program has spread to all the provinces and has played a key role in making Canada's environment better.
1979 13 December Clark's Conservatives lose a non-confidence vote on the budget, forcing their resignation.
1979 13 December The Supreme Court of Canada declares unconstitutional the creation of officially unlilingual legislatures in Manitoba and Québec.
1979 5 September The first uniquely Canadian gold bullion coin, stamped with a Maple Leaf, goes on sale.
1979 22 May Conservatives under Joe Clark win a federal election.
1980 27 June O Canada is officially adopted as Canada's national anthem.
1980 12 April Terry Fox begins his cross-country run, the "Marathon of Hope". On September 1, he is forced to stop the run when his cancer returns.
1980     At least 1 200 Canadians of all ages were infected with the deadly AIDS virus and thousands more contracted hepatitis C after receiving blood transfusion between 1980 and 1990. Blame for the suffering has been lain with the Red Cross, public health officials, bureaucrats, and politicians in what has been called "the greatest preventable medical scandal" in Canada's history.
1980     The Supreme Court recognizes the equal distribution of assets in failed common-law relationships.
1980 15 May Quebec voters reject "sovereignty-association" in favor of renewed Confederation.
1980     Ken Taylor, former Canadian ambassador to Iran, hid six American diplomats and spirited them out of Tehran after Iranian militants stormed the U.S. embassy and took sixty-six hostages.
1980 22 May A Québec referendum rejects sovereignty-association.
1980     Canada boycotts Moscow's Olympic games due to the invasion of Afghanistan.
1980 28 January Ken Taylor, Canadian ambassador to Iran, becomes an international celebrity for helping six Americans escape Tehran.
1980     Federal legislation allows 100 percent owned foreign banks to be established in Canada.
1981 28 June Terry Fox dies. Minus one leg already lost to cancer, Fox attempted to run across Canada in 1980 in his Marathon of Hope to raise money for cancer research. But in September, near Thunder Bay, Ontario, cancer struck again and the run was called off. By the time of his death $24 million was raised for his cancer research fund. Every September, runs are held in Canada and around the world to keep Fox's memory alive and also raising fund for the cancer research. Terry Fox in one of the most beloved Canadian heroes.
1981 5 November The federal government and every province except Quebec reach agreement for patriating the Canadian constitution (bringing it to Canada from Great Britain).
1981 29 June Terry Fox dies of cancer in the middle of his cross-Canada Marathon of Hope.
1981     His example eventually raises about 25 million dollars.
1981 23 September Québec bans public signs in English.
1981 5 November The federal and provincial governments (except Québec) agree on a method to repatriate Canada's constitution.
1981     The University of Waterloo, Ontario, develops the first local area networks, or LAN, for microcomputers. The networks were created as soon the first Macintosh computers and IBM personal computers were available. LANs allow all computers in an office communicate with one another.
1981   November First flight of the Canadian Remote Manipulator System (Canadarm) on the space shuttle. The highly computerized 15m arm can be operated from inside the shuttle to release, rescue, and repair satellites.
1982 4 March Bertha Wilson is the first woman appointed as a Justice of the Supreme Court.
1982 17 April Canada gets a new Constitution Act, including a Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
1982 7 April The Québec government demand for a veto over constitutional change is rejected.
1982 17 April Canada gains a new Constitution and Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
1982     The worst recession since the Great Depression begins.
1982 15 February The offshore oil rig Ocean Ranger sinks, killing 84.
1983     Jeanne Sauve is named Canada's first female governor general. She was also the first woman Speaker of the House of Commons and the first female MP from Quebec to be a cabinet minister.
1983 23 December Jeanne Sauvé is appointed the first female Governor General.
1983 1 February Pay TV begins operation.
1983     Public outcry opposes the government's approval of U.S. cruise missile testing in the west.
1984 5 October Hitching a ride on the U.S. shuttle Challenger, Marc Garneau becomes the first Canadian in space.
1984 5 October Astronaut Marc Garneau, aboard the U.S. space shuttle Challenger, becomes the first Canadian in space.
1984 14 May Jeanne Sauve is Canada first woman governor general.
1984     John Turner succeeds Trudeau as Liberal prime minister (June 30) but is soon defeated by Brian Mulroney's Conservatives with an even larger majority than that achieved by Diefenbaker in 1958 (Sept. 4).
1984     At the Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, Canada wins its greatest-ever number of gold medals: ten, including two for swimmer Alex Baumann.
1984 9 September The Pope visits Canada.
1985     U.S. ice-breaker Polar Sea challenges Canada's Arctic sovereignty by traveling through the Northwest Passage.
1985     Ontario Liberals under David Peterson end forty years of Conservative Premiership.
1985 5 March Wheelchair athlete Rick Hansen leaves Vancouver on a round-the-world "Man in Motion" tour to raise money for spinal-cord research and wheelchair sports.
1985     Lincoln Alexander becomes Ontario's first black lieutenant-governor.
1985 2 December Mulroney and U.S. president Ronald Reagan declare mutual support for orbital Strategic Defense Initiatives (Star Wars) and Free Trade at the Shamrock Summit (so-named for their ethnic backgrounds) in Québec City.
1986 11 August Tamil refugees are found drifting off the coast of Newfoundland.
1986 5 August Canada adopts sanctions against South Africa for its apartheid policies.
1986 22 May The U.S. imposes tariffs on some imported Canadian wood products.
1986   May Expo '86 opens in Vancouver (May 2-Oct. 13).
1986 31 January The Canadian dollar hits an all-time low of 70.2 U.S. cents on international money markets.
1986     Air Canada became the first North America carrier to ban smoking from its flights following the 1971 introduction of no-smoking sections on its aircraft.
1986     Canadian John Polanyi shares the Nobel prize for chemistry.
1986     John Polany of Toronto is co-winner of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry.
1986 6 October Canada receives a United Nations award for sheltering world refugees.
1987 30 August Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson sets a new world record for the 100-metre dash.
1987 3 October The Canada- U.S. Free Trade agreement is reached, but still requires ratification.
1987 19 October Stock prices tumble throughout the world.
1987 30 April Ten provincial premiers and Prime Minister Brian Mulroney agree to the Meech Lake Accord, which would make large changes to Canada's Constitution and address Quebec's concerns. Parliament and the legislatures of all provinces have three years to accept the Accord. It dies in June 1991, when both Newfoundland and Manitoba refuse to endorse it.
1987 30 April Mulroney and the provincial Premiers agree in principle to the Meech Lake Accord designed to bring Québec into the new Constitution.
1987 20 July A tornado rips through Edmonton, killing 26 and injuring hundreds.
1988 13 February The Winter Olympics open in Calgary.
1988   December Free Trade legislation passes the House of Commons and the Senate.
1988   February The Calgary Winter Olympics. Canada wins two silver medals (Brian Orser and Elizabeth Manley, for figure skating) and three bronze medals.
1988     Ben Johnson wins the 100 meters in the Olympics dilating Canadians. But the cheers faded quickly after drugs screening sowed the Toronto athlete had tested positive for steroids. He was stripped of the gold medal and his actions led to an inquiry into drugs and sport not only in Canada but also around the world.
1988 9 September David See-Chai Lam, born in Hong Kong, becomes British Columbia's lieutenant-governor.
1988 24 September Ben Johnson sets a world record and wins the gold medal at the Seoul Olympics in Korea (Sept. 24). Testing positive for steroids, he is stripped of his medal two days later. The Supreme Court strikes down Québec's French-only sign law.
1988 21 December Finding a loophole (the "notwithstanding" clause) in the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the province reinstates the law.
1988     Manitoba Premier Gary Filmon slows the ratification of the Meech Lake Accord in reaction to Québec's move.
1988 28 January The Supreme Court strikes down existing legislation against abortion as unconstitutional.
1989 2 December The first woman to lead a federal political party, Audrey McLaughlin replaces Ed Broadbent as head of the NDP.
1989 6 December Fourteen female engineering students are separated from their male colleagues and murdered by a gunman at the University of Montréal.
1989 2 December Audrey McLaughlin becomes the first woman leader of a federal party - the New Democratic Party.
1989 5 June The government announces cuts in the funding of VIA Rail, to much public outcry.
1989     One-dollar bills are replaced by the one-dollar coin, popularly called the "loonie."
1989     Heather Erxleben becomes Canada's first acknowledged female combat soldier.
1989 1 January Free Trade goes into effect.
1989 1 January After a federal election fought over the issue of free trade, the free-trade agreement between Canada and the United States comes into effect, gradually ending controls on trade and investment between the two countries.
1989 6 December Marc Lepine kills fourteen female engineering students at Ecole Polytechnique at the University of Montreal and than shoots himself. The "Montreal Massacre" has since become a symbol of violence against women and is commemorated each December across the country.
1989     Audrey McLaughlin is elected leader of the federal New Democratic Party, becoming the first women to lead a national party in Canada and North America.
1989 1 March The Canadian Space Agency is created to promote the peaceful use and development of the space and ensure space science and technology provide social and economic benefits to Canadians.
1990     A recession is officially announced.
1990     A land dispute causes a 78-day armed confrontation between Mohawks and the army on a reserve near Oka, Quebec.
1990 1 December The federal government banned the use of leaded gas in motor vehicles after years of debate. Research had linked lead to health problems, mainly in children.
1990 25 July Newfoundland Premier Clyde Wells further slows down the signing of the Meech Lake Accord, but a native member of the Manitoba legislative, Elijah Harper, deals it the fatal blow with his absolute refusal to accept Québec as Canada's principal, if not only, "distinct society" (June 22). One of the many responses is the formation of the Bloc Québecois by a handful of disenchanted politicians.
1990   September Bob Rae upsets David Peterson and, with a surprising majority, becomes Ontario's first NDP Premier.
1990   December Despite the Liberals' sometimes peculiar stalling tactics, the Senate passes the unpopular Goods and Services Tax.
1990   April The federal government settles a land claim with the Inuit that will give them 350 000 square km of territory in the North, to be called Nunavut.
1991   January The war in the Persian Gulf starts. Canada sends three warships, twenty-six fighter jets, and 2 400 people to the Persian Gulf as part of a United Nations effort to force Iraqi troops to withdraw from Kuwait.
1991     The Tungavik sign an agreement with Ottawa to create a new, quasi-independent Inuit territory in the eastern Arctic.
1991   November In a Brantford, Ontario courtroom, a Six Nations man is the first to be allowed to make a traditional native oath instead of swearing on the Bible.
1991 8 September Canada's Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) is launched aboard NASA's Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) to provide new measurements of the physical and chemical processes taking place at altitudes ten to three hundred kilometers above the earth's surface.
1991 15 January Canadian forces join the multinational forces in the battle to drive Saddam Hussein's Iraqi troops from Kuwait.
1991   May George Erasmus, leader of the Assembly of First Nations, resigns at the end of his second term (May); he is succeeded by Ovide Mercredi, whose popularity earns him the nickname of "eleventh premier."
1991     Yet another committee crosses the country soliciting citizens' opinions on proposed constitutional reforms.
1991     David Schindler of the University of Alberta wins the first international Stockholm Water Prize for environmental research.
1991     British Columbia premier Bill Van Der Zalm resigns in the midst of a real estate scandal.
1991 1 January GST (Good and Services Tax) is introduced by Brian Mulroney's Conservative government. The 7 percent tax paid at the cash register replaced the 13.5 percent federal manufacturer's tax.
1991 1 January The unpopular Goods and Services Tax comes into effect.
1992 26 October Canadians vote "no" in a referendum seeking popular support for the Charlottetown Agreement, intended as a corrective to the Canadian Constitution in the wake of the failed Meech Lake Accord.
1992     Although the players are all American, the Toronto Blue Jays become the first nominally Canadian team to win baseball's World Series.
1992 22 January Dr. Roberta Bondar becomes the first Canadian woman in space, aboard the U.S. space shuttle Discovery.
1992     The Miss Canada pageant is scrapped.
1992     Ontario lawyers vote no longer to swear an oath to the Queen.
1992 24 October Toronto's Blue Jays became the first Canadian team to win baseball's World Series.
1992   June Canada is the first country to sign the international bio-diversity convention at the Earth Summit in Brazil.
1992     Roberta Bondar is Canada's first female astronaut in orbit.
1992 28 August Canadian leaders adopt the Charlottetown Accord to reform Canada's constitution, but in a national referendum in October, Canadians reject it.
1993   July Part of northwest B.C. is set aside as a world heritage conservation site. Protesters block loggers' access to ancient forests near Clayoquot Sound.
1993 23 October The Toronto Blue Jays win the World Series for the second year in a row.
1993   June im Campbell replaces Brian Mulroney as the head of the Progressive Conservatives, becoming Canada's first woman Prime Minister.
1993   March Catherine Callbeck becomes the first woman Premier, in Prince Edward Island. Environmental activists cause minor damage to government buildings in Victoria, B.C., during a demonstration.
1993 25 October Liberal leader Jean Chrétien is elected in a landslide victory, with Lucien Bouchard's Bloc Québecois and Preston Manning's Reform Party only one seat apart in distant second and third places. The Progressive Conservatives, in power for nine years, are reduced to a mere two seats -- less than is required to be considered an official party.
1993     Common-Law Union is recognized. Effective for the 1993 and subsequent tax years, common-law unions began to be considered the equivalent of a legal marriages for tax purposes. The measure was a response to court challenges that had argued that the tax system discriminated against legally married couples in favor of common-law ones.
1993 22 February Paul Martin abolishes the $100.000 Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption in his first budget as finance minister, except for qualified farm property and qualified small business corporation shares.
1993     Four members of the elite Canadian Airborne Regiment who were in Somalia for a peacekeeping mission were charged with the torture and beating death of Samali civilian. In 1994 Private Elvin Kyle Brown was convicted of manslaughter and torture and sentenced to five years in prison. The government disbanded the regiment later in 1995.
1993 25 June Kim Campbell, the new Conservative party leader, becomes Canada's first female prime minister, but in October Jean Chrétien's Liberals win the general election.
1993     Kim Campbell becomes the first female prime minister of Canada. She was also the first woman to lead the federal Progressive Conservative Party.
1993     Canada, with Kurt Browning (gold), Elvis Stojko (silver), and Isabelle Brasseur and Lloyd Eisler (gold), has its best skating World Championship since 1962.
1994 15 September Separatist Jacques Parizeau becomes the premier of Quebec.
1994     The Canadian pilot of a Korean airliner that crashed is arrested for endangering the lives of his passengers.
1994     The North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) comes into effect, linking Canada, the United States, and Mexico in a new economic partnership.
1995 4 November RADARSAT is launched as the first Canadian earth observation satellite and first non-communications satellite since 1971. It can provide images of the earth's surface day and night, in any climate conditions, to clients around the world.
1995     A thirteen kilometer bridge connecting Prince Edward Island to the mainland is opened.
1995     "Turbot war" erupts when Canada arrests a Spanish ship in a bid to prevent European fleets from over-harvesting Newfoundland fish stocks.
1995     Canadian James Gosling, working for American company Sun Microsystems, develops Java, an object-oriented programming language that allows many different kinds of computers, consumer gadgets, and other devices communicate with one another more easily.
1995 30 October Quebec votes in a referendum on sovereignty and the federalists win a razor-thin victory.
1995     Donovan Bailey becomes "the world's fastest man" when he breaks the record for the 100-metre race.
1996 19 May Astronaut Marc Garneau makes his second trip into space.
1996 29 January Lucien Bouchard is sworn in as the new premier of Quebec.
1997 31 May Confederation Bridge opens for business, linking Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island, and Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick. The 12.9 kilometer bridge cost $1 billion.
1998   December The federal government rejects proposed bank merges that would have united the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce with the Toronto-Dominion Bank and the Royal Bank with the Bank of Montreal.
1998 4-9 January The most desctructive and disruptive ice storm in Canadian history dropps close to one hundred millimetres of freezing rain in some areas of central and eastern Canada, affecting nearly 20 percent of Canada's population, mainly in Montreal and Ottawa.
1999 15 April Wayne Gretzky plays the last game in a Canadian arena at the Corel Centre, in Nakata, Ontario. After twenty years in the National Hockey League with Edmonton Oilers, Los Angeles Kings, St. Louis Blues, and New York Rangers, the Great One announced his retirement. His final game in the NHL was three days later at Madison Square Garden in New York.

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